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    As a result, there was an assassination attempt on the Queen and finally, in , Otto was deposed while in the countryside.

    The law of succession to the throne of Greece was defined by a supplementary article to the convention of 7 May awarding the Greek Throne to Otto I.

    It instituted a semi-salic order with an important rule preventing the union of the crown on the same head with any other crown, especially that of Bavaria.

    At this point, tracing the claim becomes impossible as the same branch of the Wittelsbach became heir to both thrones, and a subsequent monarch or pretender should have issued a renunciation to one of the two thrones, which none did.

    In the end, neither Luitpold nor his son Ludwig actively pursued a claim to the Greek throne inherited from Otto I , and the throne of Bavaria itself disappeared in , leaving the future of the claim to be decided by a further arrangement that never occurred.

    Due to the unexpected death of Joseph Ferdinand in the Wittelsbach did not come to power in Spain , leaving the Spanish Succession uncertain again.

    Many women in the family are known as Elisabeth of Bavaria. Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses , as it can be traced back through the generations.

    Some of the most important Bavarian castles and palaces that were built by Wittelsbach rulers, or served as seats of ruling branch lines, are the following:.

    Munich Residenz by Michael Wening. Schleissheim Palace in Munich. From to , Bonn was the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and residence of the Archbishops and Prince-electors of Cologne, most of them belonging to the Bavarian branch of the House of Wittelsbach from to A full armorial of the Wittelsbach family can be found on the French-language Wikipedia at Armorial of the House of Wittelsbach.

    Electoral Palatinate, County Palatine of the Rhine from to Quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent.

    Quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent, overall gules, an orb or encircled of the same.

    Or, an eagle sable, membered, beaked and langued gules; overall quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent.

    Quarterly a cross paty argent, fimbriated gules, cantonned 1 and 4, azure three bars wavy argent, overall a lion crowned or, which is Sweden ancien, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise argent and azure, which is Bavaria.

    Overall quarterly 1 or, nine hearts gules in three pallets, three lions passant guardant azure in pale, armed and langued gules, crowned of the field, brochant sur-le-tout, which is Denmark, 2 azure, three crowns or, which is Sweden moderne, 3 gules, a lion crowned or, holding in his paws a battle-axe argent, the handle of the second, which is Norway ancien and 4 gules, a dragon or, which is for the Kingdom of the Vandals [7] [8].

    Overall per pale sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules Palatinate and fusilly bendwise azure and argent Bavaria ; grafted in point gules, an orb or, which is the heraldic augmentation for the archsteward of the Holy Roman Empire.

    Quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules Palatinate , 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent Bavaria , overall gules, a crown of Charlemagne or, which is the heraldic augmentation for the archtreasurer of the Holy Roman Empire.

    Overall, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules County palatine of the Rhine. Per pale, I quarterly 1 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules county palatine of the Rhine , 2 fusilly bendwise azure and argent Bavaria , 3 argent, a lion azure armed, langued and crowned or Veldenz , 4 or, a fess chequy of three rows argent and gules de la Marck , II per fess, the chief tierced in pale, the base per pale: Quarterly, a cross paty or, which is the cross of Saint Eric, cantonned 1 and 4, azure, three crowns or, two and one Sweden moderne , 2 and 3 azure, three bars wavy argent, a lion crowned or, armed and langued gules Sweden ancien.

    Overall quarterly Bavaria, Juliers, Cleves and Berg, inescutcheon sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules County palatine of the Rhine.

    Per pale, I quarterly 1 and 4 County palatine of the Rhine, 2 and 3 Bavaria; II quarterly 1 Veldenz, 2 chequy gules and argent de Birkenfeld , 3 argent, three escutcheons gules, two and one Rappolstein , 4 argent, three heads of eagles sable, crowned or, two and one de Hohenach.

    Fusilly bendwise, azure and argent, an inescutcheon gules, a sword argent pommelled or and a scepter or in saltire, in chief a royal crown or [5] [15].

    Quarterly 1 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules County palatine of the Rhine , 2 per fess indented gules and argent Franconia , 3 bendy sinister argent and gules, a pale or de Burgovie , 4 argent, a lion azure, armed, langued and crowned or Veldenz.

    Azure, a cross couped argent, inescutcheon Bavaria. In chief, gules, a cross argent. Fusilly in bend azure and argent [5] [17].

    Or, an eagle sable, membered, beaked and langued gules, inescutcheon fusilly in bend azure and argent. Per pale fusilly in bend azure and argent, and argent, an eagle gules, armed, beaked and langued or.

    Quarterly 1 and 4, fusilly in bend, azure and argent, 2 and 3, grand-quarterly I and IV or, a lion sable, armed and langued gules, II and III, or, a lion gules, armed and langued azure.

    He was placed under the ban of the Empire and his lands, titles and electoral dignity were confiscated and given to his Roman Catholic cousin, the Duke of Bavaria, who takes:.

    Quarterly 1 and 4 fusilly in bend, azure and argent, 2 and 3 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, overall gules, an orb crucifer or.

    Or, an eagle sable, membered, beaked and langued gules; inescutcheon quarterly 1 and 4 fusilly in bend, azure and argent, 2 and 3 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, sur le tout gules, an orb crucifer or.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Wittelsbach disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification.

    Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

    The Old Court in Munich. Nymphenburg Palace in Munich. Trausnitz Castle in Landshut. Electoral Palace , Bonn.

    Poppelsdorf Palace , Bonn. Retrieved 31 May Royal houses of Europe. Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy. Retrieved from " https: In accordance with the prevailing Bavarian administrative structure, the region became one of eight Bavarian districts Kreise.

    From , Bavaria embarked on the administrative reorganisation of its territory, creating districts which, as in France, were named after the main local rivers.

    Thus the new district along the Rhine was given the name Rheinkreis i. Of the former French administrative structure, the subdivision of the district into arrondissements, cantons, mayoralties, and municipalities was, in large measure, retained.

    At the next lower level, the three former French arrondissements were continued as Kreisdirektion "Circle", i. Kreisdirektion Landau was, however, a new creation.

    In the cantons were merged into 12 administrative districts called Landkommissariat. In these were designated individually as Bezirksamt. In each one became a Landkreis rural district.

    In the Rheinkreis became the focal point of liberal movements. As such, the Rheinkreis officially became the Pfalz Palatinate.

    It included territories that were never part of the historical Palatinate e. To avoid confusion of the new Palatinate and the former one and with the Upper Palatinate , the name Rhenish Palatinate Rheinpfalz became common and is still used today, but was never made its official name.

    Another term, that of Rhenish Bavaria Rheinbayern , though used occasionally, never gained great currency, but can, nonetheless, be found sometimes on older maps.

    The Bavarian Royal Family tried to encourage Palatine unity with Bavaria by erecting a royal palace in Edenkoben , and through the restoration of Speyer Cathedral under the direct supervision of King Ludwig I himself.

    The new town of Ludwigshafen was named after the king. Indeed, they tried to promote their liberalism, which the French had introduced to the Palatinate, to the whole Bavarian kingdom.

    German historian Heiner Haan [6] described the special status accorded the Palatinate within Bavaria as being one of a Hauptstaat main state, i.

    Bavaria with a Nebenstaat alongside state, i. A separatist uprising was suppressed by Prussian military intervention.

    In the town of Landau was declared independent from the Bezirksamt. They remain independent to this day. Between and , during the occupation, there were French-backed attempts at separating the Palatinate from Bavaria and the Empire.

    On 23 November , Franz Josef Heinz proclaimed the "Government of the Autonomous Palatinate in the Association of the Rhenish Republic " at Speyer, after gaining control of the towns of Kaiserslautern, Neustadt, and Landau, and after the capitulation of the Palatine government.

    The Bavarian government reacted sharply. It organised a squad under the command of Edgar Julius Jung. Other leading members of the separatist movement were killed on 12 February, in a shooting in Pirmasens.

    By then, a treaty between Bavaria and the Inter-Allied Rhineland High Commission the supreme council of the Allied occupation forces of January recognised the status quo and guaranteed that the Palatinate would remain a part of Bavaria, thereby putting an end to separatist attempts.

    While Bavaria itself was part of the U. The Palatinate formed the administrative district Regierungsbezirk Pfalz. This reorganisation came with smaller losses of former district territory to the Saarland, especially in the area of Sankt Wendel.

    As part of the administrative reform, some minor border changes were made in the north. The Diocese of Speyer and the Evangelical Church of the Palatinate still exist today largely based on the historic boundaries of the old Bavarian district of die Pfalz.

    The Pfalz was initially one of five districts in Rhineland-Palatinate; however in the district was merged with the neighbouring district of Rheinhessen to form the district of Rheinhessen-Pfalz.

    On 1 January all administrative districts of Rheinland-Pfalz were dissolved. The Pennsylvania Dutch language spoken by the Amish in the United States is derived primarily from the Palatine German language which many Mennonite refugees brought to Pennsylvania the in years to In the same village one can find the headquarters of the German-Pennsylvanian Association.

    Many more Palatines emigrated in the course of the 19th century, and the great majority of them to North America, so that in the US temporarily "Palatine" was a common designation for German Americans.

    Other traditional meat dishes of the region include bratwurst, Palatinate liverwurst, a blood pudding sausage called grieweworscht "griewe" are speck bacon cubes, so lit.

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    Wem dies immer noch nicht reichte, der durfte sich auf deftiges vom Grill freuen, das Bärle sowie Achim in der THW-Unterkunft während dessen zubereiteten und nach Ankunft der vier Teams gemeinsam eingenommen wurde. Einsatztag "Schneeräumen" Quasi just-in-time konnte gegen Schneehexen eingesetzt — dennoch ist die Arbeit mit voll angelegter Sicherheitsausstattung sehr Kräftezehrend. Gegen Abend wurden die Räumarbeiten abgebrochen. Etwas ungeplanter verlief der heutige Nachmittag, als unser Zugtruppfahrzeug bei einer akuten Evakuierung eingesetzt wurde. Heute bezeichnet der Einsatz den Beginn internationaler Kooperation und Standards.

    With the Golden Bull of the Counts Palatine were invested with the electoral dignity, their county became the Electorate of the Palatinate.

    When the senior branch of the Palatinate branch died out in , the Electorate passed to Frederick III of Simmern , a staunch Calvinist , and the Palatinate became one of the major centers of Calvinism in Europe, supporting Calvinist rebellions in both the Netherlands and France.

    As a result, the Upper Palatinate had to be ceded to the Bavarian branch in To strengthen the union of all lines of the Wittelsbach dynasty Charles Philip organized a wedding on 17 January when his granddaughters were married to Charles Theodore of Palatinate-Sulzbach and to the Bavarian prince Clement.

    After extinction of the Neuburg branch in , the Palatinate was inherited by Duke Charles Theodore of the branch Palatinate-Sulzbach.

    After the extinction of the Bavarian branch in , a succession dispute and the brief War of the Bavarian Succession , the Palatinate-Sulzbach branch under Elector Charles Theodore succeeded also in Bavaria.

    At the time there were two surviving branches of the Wittelsbach family: The form Duke in Bavaria was selected because in primogeniture had been established in the House of Wittelsbach resulting in there being only one Reigning Duke of Bavaria at any given time.

    It was also far-and-away the most powerful secondary state. The Wittelsbachs reigned as kings of Bavaria until Family members spent time in several Nazi concentration camps including Oranienburg and Dachau.

    Otto had abdicated the Hungarian throne by The line of Jacobite succession is currently within the House of Wittelsbach. The Wittelsbach prince Otto of Bavaria was elected king of newly independent Greece in and was forced to abdicate in Sweden reached its largest territorial extent under the rule of Charles X after the Treaty of Roskilde in His legacy to his son, Charles XII , was one of the finest arsenals in the world, a large standing army and a great fleet.

    Charles XII was a skilled military leader and tactician. However, although he was also skilled as a politician, he was reluctant in making peace.

    Charles was succeeded to the Swedish throne by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora. Her abdication in marked the end of Wittelsbach rule in Sweden. As a result, there was an assassination attempt on the Queen and finally, in , Otto was deposed while in the countryside.

    The law of succession to the throne of Greece was defined by a supplementary article to the convention of 7 May awarding the Greek Throne to Otto I.

    It instituted a semi-salic order with an important rule preventing the union of the crown on the same head with any other crown, especially that of Bavaria.

    At this point, tracing the claim becomes impossible as the same branch of the Wittelsbach became heir to both thrones, and a subsequent monarch or pretender should have issued a renunciation to one of the two thrones, which none did.

    In the end, neither Luitpold nor his son Ludwig actively pursued a claim to the Greek throne inherited from Otto I , and the throne of Bavaria itself disappeared in , leaving the future of the claim to be decided by a further arrangement that never occurred.

    Due to the unexpected death of Joseph Ferdinand in the Wittelsbach did not come to power in Spain , leaving the Spanish Succession uncertain again.

    Many women in the family are known as Elisabeth of Bavaria. Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses , as it can be traced back through the generations.

    Some of the most important Bavarian castles and palaces that were built by Wittelsbach rulers, or served as seats of ruling branch lines, are the following:.

    Munich Residenz by Michael Wening. Schleissheim Palace in Munich. From to , Bonn was the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and residence of the Archbishops and Prince-electors of Cologne, most of them belonging to the Bavarian branch of the House of Wittelsbach from to A full armorial of the Wittelsbach family can be found on the French-language Wikipedia at Armorial of the House of Wittelsbach.

    Electoral Palatinate, County Palatine of the Rhine from to Quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent.

    Quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent, overall gules, an orb or encircled of the same.

    Or, an eagle sable, membered, beaked and langued gules; overall quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent.

    Quarterly a cross paty argent, fimbriated gules, cantonned 1 and 4, azure three bars wavy argent, overall a lion crowned or, which is Sweden ancien, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise argent and azure, which is Bavaria.

    Overall quarterly 1 or, nine hearts gules in three pallets, three lions passant guardant azure in pale, armed and langued gules, crowned of the field, brochant sur-le-tout, which is Denmark, 2 azure, three crowns or, which is Sweden moderne, 3 gules, a lion crowned or, holding in his paws a battle-axe argent, the handle of the second, which is Norway ancien and 4 gules, a dragon or, which is for the Kingdom of the Vandals [7] [8].

    Overall per pale sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules Palatinate and fusilly bendwise azure and argent Bavaria ; grafted in point gules, an orb or, which is the heraldic augmentation for the archsteward of the Holy Roman Empire.

    Quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules Palatinate , 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent Bavaria , overall gules, a crown of Charlemagne or, which is the heraldic augmentation for the archtreasurer of the Holy Roman Empire.

    Overall, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules County palatine of the Rhine. Per pale, I quarterly 1 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules county palatine of the Rhine , 2 fusilly bendwise azure and argent Bavaria , 3 argent, a lion azure armed, langued and crowned or Veldenz , 4 or, a fess chequy of three rows argent and gules de la Marck , II per fess, the chief tierced in pale, the base per pale: Quarterly, a cross paty or, which is the cross of Saint Eric, cantonned 1 and 4, azure, three crowns or, two and one Sweden moderne , 2 and 3 azure, three bars wavy argent, a lion crowned or, armed and langued gules Sweden ancien.

    Overall quarterly Bavaria, Juliers, Cleves and Berg, inescutcheon sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules County palatine of the Rhine.

    Per pale, I quarterly 1 and 4 County palatine of the Rhine, 2 and 3 Bavaria; II quarterly 1 Veldenz, 2 chequy gules and argent de Birkenfeld , 3 argent, three escutcheons gules, two and one Rappolstein , 4 argent, three heads of eagles sable, crowned or, two and one de Hohenach.

    Fusilly bendwise, azure and argent, an inescutcheon gules, a sword argent pommelled or and a scepter or in saltire, in chief a royal crown or [5] [15].

    Quarterly 1 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules County palatine of the Rhine , 2 per fess indented gules and argent Franconia , 3 bendy sinister argent and gules, a pale or de Burgovie , 4 argent, a lion azure, armed, langued and crowned or Veldenz.

    Azure, a cross couped argent, inescutcheon Bavaria. In chief, gules, a cross argent. Fusilly in bend azure and argent [5] [17].

    In the south, the German- French border separates the Palatinate from Alsace. The western and northern part of the Palatinate is densely forested and mountainous.

    It is one of the greatest wine-producing regions in Germany, and in the last two decades has become well known for its numerous prizewinning white and reds of highest quality produced by a number of talented young winemakers.

    Historically the Electoral Palatinate and several other territories were part of the Palatinate, but today belong to other German territories.

    The Palatinate is divided into four non-administrative sub-regions, comprising the following rural districts and independent towns and cities:.

    Like most of Europe, the Palatinate is part of the oceanic climate zone influenced by the Atlantic , with an average annual temperature of about 10 degrees Celsius.

    Wet air from the prevailing westerly and southwesterly winds leads to precipitation in the Mittelgebirge ranges, while it warms up on its way further down to the Rhine Valley.

    Here the temperate weather permits the cultivating of almond and fig trees , stone pines , Mediterranean Cypress , palms , and even some banana species.

    The lower hilly regions are known for their extended chestnut forests, sometimes referred to as "German Tuscany " in tourist advertising.

    During the decay of the Empire, Alamanni tribes settled here; their territory was conquered by Francia under King Clovis I about From onwards the area belonged to the eastern part of Frankish Austrasia , that—as Rhenish Franconia —became part of East Francia according to the Treaty of Verdun.

    From the Middle Ages until , the Palatinate was divided into 45 secular and ecclesiastical territories , some of which were very small.

    The largest and most important of these was the Electorate of the Palatinate Kurpfalz , a number of Franconian territories on both sides of the Rhine formerly held by the Counts palatine Pfalzgrafen of Lotharingia.

    They lost control with the reunification with Bavaria under Elector Charles Theodore in The major ecclesiastical territory in the region was the Bishopric of Speyer.

    For centuries, the Electoral Palatinate and Bavaria maintained dynastic links because both were ruled by members of the Wittelsbach family.

    In the Left Bank of the Rhine , including the Palatinate, was occupied by French revolutionary troops. In they introduced a new administrative system with the establishment of departments.

    The French further subdivided the department into cantons, mayoralties and municipalities, and introduced their legal system Napoleonic Code and the metric system.

    Following the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in , and the capture of the Left Bank of the Rhine by the Allies in January ; from 2 February , the region was initially under the provisional authority of the General Government of the Middle Rhine , but, from 16 June of the same year, it was placed under the administration of the Imperial-Royal "k.

    In the main treaty agreed at the Congress of Vienna in , and dated 9 June , Article 51 stated that inter alia , on the Left Bank of the Rhine the former French departements of the Sarre and Mont Tonnerre, except where set forth in the same treaty, were to fall "with full sovereignty" and ownership rights within the overlordship of His Majesty the Emperor of Austria Herrschaft Sr.

    On 14 April a treaty was signed between Austria and Bavaria , in which the various territorial changes were agreed on. These included, in addition to various regions east of the Rhine, the following regions west of the Rhine: In accordance with the prevailing Bavarian administrative structure, the region became one of eight Bavarian districts Kreise.

    From , Bavaria embarked on the administrative reorganisation of its territory, creating districts which, as in France, were named after the main local rivers.

    Thus the new district along the Rhine was given the name Rheinkreis i. Of the former French administrative structure, the subdivision of the district into arrondissements, cantons, mayoralties, and municipalities was, in large measure, retained.

    At the next lower level, the three former French arrondissements were continued as Kreisdirektion "Circle", i. Kreisdirektion Landau was, however, a new creation.

    In the cantons were merged into 12 administrative districts called Landkommissariat. In these were designated individually as Bezirksamt. In each one became a Landkreis rural district.

    In the Rheinkreis became the focal point of liberal movements. As such, the Rheinkreis officially became the Pfalz Palatinate. It included territories that were never part of the historical Palatinate e.

    To avoid confusion of the new Palatinate and the former one and with the Upper Palatinate , the name Rhenish Palatinate Rheinpfalz became common and is still used today, but was never made its official name.

    Another term, that of Rhenish Bavaria Rheinbayern , though used occasionally, never gained great currency, but can, nonetheless, be found sometimes on older maps.

    The Bavarian Royal Family tried to encourage Palatine unity with Bavaria by erecting a royal palace in Edenkoben , and through the restoration of Speyer Cathedral under the direct supervision of King Ludwig I himself.

    The new town of Ludwigshafen was named after the king.

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