EM-Qualifikation Live-Kommentar für Albanien vs. Portugal am 7. September , mit allen Statistiken und wichtigen Ereignissen, ständig aktualisiert. Der Weg zur EM ist ein neu gestalteter: Die Nations League hat für die Qualifikation zentralen Einfluss - so wird die DFB-Auswahl nicht als Gruppenkopf in. Die albanisch-portugiesischen Beziehungen beschreiben das zwischenstaatliche Verhältnis zwischen Albanien und Portugal. Die Länder unterhalten seit
Albania also is an observer to the Organization of American States. As of June , Albania is a candidate for accession into the European Union.
More information about Albania is available from the Department of State and other sources, some of which are listed here:.
Jump to In This Section. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets U. Relations With Albania Share. Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. Assistance to Albania U.
Burim Kukeli Albania wins a free kick in the defensive half. Shkelzen Gashi Albania left footed shot from outside the box is close, but misses to the right.
Assisted by Amir Abrashi. Amir Abrashi Albania is shown the yellow card for a bad foul. Bernardo Silva Portugal left footed shot from the right side of the box is close, but misses to the left.
Lorik Cana tries a through ball, but Ermir Lenjani is caught offside. Sokol Cikalleshi Albania left footed shot from the right side of the box is blocked.
Assisted by Shkelzen Gashi with a headed pass. Danny Portugal wins a free kick in the attacking half. Nani tries a through ball, but Cristiano Ronaldo is caught offside.
Danilo Pereira Portugal header from the centre of the box is too high. Assisted by Danny with a cross following a corner.
Cristiano Ronaldo Portugal right footed shot from outside the box is close, but misses to the left. Eliseu Portugal right footed shot from long range on the left misses to the right.
Vieirinha Portugal wins a free kick in the defensive half. Sokol Cikalleshi Albania wins a free kick in the attacking half. Berat Djimsiti Albania is shown the yellow card for a bad foul.
Miguel Veloso Portugal wins a free kick in the defensive half. Cristiano Ronaldo Portugal wins a free kick on the left wing.
Bernardo Silva tries a through ball, but Cristiano Ronaldo is caught offside. Vieirinha Portugal left footed shot from outside the box is too high.
Nani Portugal hits the right post with a right footed shot from the right side of the six yard box. Assisted by Danilo Pereira with a headed pass following a corner.
Cristiano Ronaldo Portugal right footed shot from outside the box is saved in the bottom left corner. Assisted by Bernardo Silva. Vieirinha tries a through ball, but Miguel Veloso is caught offside.
Taulant Xhaka Albania wins a free kick in the defensive half. The country has never had an official religion either as a republic or as a kingdom.
In the 20th century, the clergy of all faiths was weakened under the monarchy and ultimately eradicated during the s and s, under the state policy of obliterating all organized religion from the territories of Albania.
The communist regime persecuted and suppressed religious observance and institutions and entirely banned religion. Islam survived communist era persecution and reemerged in the modern era as a practiced religion in Albania.
Due to that, he was arrested and imprisoned by the Ottoman authorities in First evangelical Protestants appeared in the 19th century and the Evangelical Alliance was founded in Nowadays, it has member congregations from different Protestant denominations.
Albania was the only country in Europe where the Jewish population increased significantly during the Holocaust.
Albania shares many symbols associated with its history, culture and belief. These include the colours red and black, animals such as the golden eagle living across the country, costumes such as the fustanella , plis and opinga which are worn to special events and celebrations, plants such as the olive and red poppy growing as well across the country.
The flag of Albania is a red flag with a black double-headed eagle in the centre. In the course of the centuries, Albanian cuisine has been widely influenced by the culture , geography and history of Albania and therefore different parts of the country have a specific regional cuisine.
The cooking traditions vary especially between the north and the south owing to differing topography and climate that contribute to the excellent growth conditions for a wide array of herbs , fruits and vegetables.
Albanians produces and uses many varieties of fruits such as lemons , oranges , figs and most notably olives which are perhaps the most important element of Albanian cooking.
Spices and other herbs such as basil , lavender , mint , oregano , rosemary and thyme are widely used, as are vegetables such as garlics , onions , peppers , potatoes and tomatoes as well as legumes of all types.
While having a coastline along the Adriatic and Ionian Sea of the Mediterranean Sea , fish , crustaceans and seafood are a popular and an integral part of the Albanian diet.
Otherwise lamb is the traditional meat for different holidays and religious festivals for both Christians and Muslims , and poultry , beef , and pork are also in plentiful supply.
Petulla, a traditionally fried dough, is as well a popular speciality and is served with powdered sugar or feta cheese and different sorts of fruit jams.
Also popular is Flia consisting of multiple crepe-like layers brushed with cream and served with sour cream. Krofne, similar to Berliner , are filled with jam, or chocolate and often eaten during the cold winter months.
A small country in size, Albania ranked first with the most coffee houses per capita in the world. It is cultivated across Southern Albania and noted for its medicinal properties.
Black tea with a slice of lemon and sugar, milk or honey is also a popular type of tea. Wine drinking is popular throughout the Albanians.
The country has a long and ancient history of wine production, as it belongs to the old world of wine producing countries. The architecture of Albania reflects the legacy of various civilizations tracing back to the classical antiquity.
Major cities in Albania have evolved from within the castle to include dwellings, religious and commercial structures, with constant redesigning of town squares and evolution of building techniques.
Nowadays, the cities and towns reflect a whole spectrum of various architectural styles. In the 20th century, many historical as well as sacred buildings bearing the ancient influence were demolished during the communism.
Considering the long period of rule of the Byzantine Empire , they introduced castles, citadels, churches and monasteries with spectacular wealth of visible murals and frescos.
The 20th century brought new architectural styles such as the modern Italian style , which is present in Tirana such as the Skanderbeg Square and Ministries.
Moreover, other towns received their present-day Albania-unique appearance through various cultural or economic influences. Socialist classicism arrived during the communism in Albania after the Second World War.
At this period many socialist-styled complexes, wide roads and factories were constructed, while town squares were redesigned and numerous of historic and important buildings demolished.
The Albanian folk music is a prominent section of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Albanian music.
Although, it can be divided into two stylistic groups, as performed by the northern Ghegs and southern Labs and Tosks.
The northern and southern traditions are contrasted by the rugged tone of the north and the relaxed form of the south. Many of the songs are about events from history and culture , including the traditional themes about honour, hospitality, treachery and revenge.
He was nominated for the Grammy Award. Every cultural and geographical region of Albania has its own specific variety of costume that vary in style, material, color, shape, detail and form.
Some conservative old men and women mainly from the high northern as well as southern regions and wear traditional clothing in their daily lives.
The clothing was made mainly of products from the local agriculture and livestock such as leather, wool, linen, hemp fiber and silk.
Nowadays, the traditional textiles are still embroidered in very collaborate ancient patterns. The visual arts tradition of Albania has been shaped by the many cultures, which have flourished on its territory.
Following mosaics and murals from Antiquity and the Middle Ages , the first paintings were icons Byzantine traditions. Albanian earliest icons date from the late 13th century and generally estimated that their artistic peak reached in the 18th century.
Among the most prominent representatives of the Albanian iconographic art were Onufri and David Selenica. By the end of the Ottoman rule, the painting was limited mostly to folk art and ornate mosques.
Albanian artists continue to move art forward, while their art still remains distinctively Albanian in content. Though among Albanian artist post-modernism was fairly recently introduced, there is a number of artists and works known internationally.
The Albanian language comprises its own branch of the Indo-European language family. The language is considered an isolate within the Indo-European.
The only other languages that are the sole surviving member of a branch of Indo-European are Armenian and Greek.
Albanian is often held to be related to the Illyrian languages , a language spoken in the Balkans during classical times.
Scholars argue that Albanian derives from Illyrian  while some others  claim that it derives from Daco - Thracian. Illyrian and Daco-Thracian, however, might have been closely related languages; see Thraco-Illyrian.
The cultural renaissance was first of all expressed through the development of the Albanian language in the area of church texts and publications, mainly of the Catholic region in the northern of Albania, but also of the Orthodox in the south.
The Protestant reforms invigorated hopes for the development of the local language and literary tradition, when cleric Gjon Buzuku brought into the Albanian language the Catholic liturgy , trying to do for the Albanian language, what Martin Luther did for the German language.
Meshari The Missal written by Gjon Buzuku was published in and is considered as one of the first literary work of written Albanian during the Middle Ages.
The refined level of the language and the stabilised orthography must be the result of an earlier tradition of written Albanian, a tradition that is not well understood.
However, there is some fragmented evidence, pre-dating Buzuku, which indicates that Albanian was written from at least the 14th century.
Other significant examples include: Albanian writings from these centuries must not have been religious texts only, but historical chronicles too. The History of Skanderbeg is still the foundation of Skanderbeg studies and is considered an Albanian cultural treasure, vital to the formation of Albanian national self-consciousness.
The most famous Albanian writer in the 20th and 21st century is probably Ismail Kadare. He has been mentioned as a possible recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature several times.
The first Albanian films were mostly documentaries ; the first was about the Monastir Congress that sanctioned the Albanian alphabet in This was followed by the first Albanian epic film , the Great Warrior Skanderbeg , a cooperation with Soviet artists chronicling the life and fight of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg.
By , about movies had been produced, and Albania had over theaters. With the economic transition after the collapse of communism in the s, the Kinostudio was broken up and privatised.
A new National Center of Cinematography was established, while cities built modern cinema theatres showing mostly American movies. The Tirana International Film Festival was established in and has become the premier and largest film festival in the country as well as in the Balkans.
Albania participated at the Olympic Games in for the first time. The country made their Winter Olympic Games debut in Albania missed the next four games, two of them due to the and boycotts, but returned for the games in Barcelona.
Since then, Albania have participated in all games. Albania normally competes in events that include swimming, athletics, weightlifting, shooting and wrestling.
The country have been represented by the National Olympic Committee of Albania since The nation has participated at the Mediterranean Games since the games of in Syria.
The Albanian athletes have won a total of 43 8 gold, 17 silver and 18 bronze medals from to Football is by far the most popular sport in Albania.
It is governed by the Football Association of Albania Albanian: Federata Shqiptare e Futbollit , F. Albania scored their first ever goal in a major tournament and secured their first ever win in European Championship when they beat Romania by 1—0 in a UEFA Euro match on 19 June Weightlifting is one of the most successful individual sport for the Albanians, with the national team winning medals at the European Weightlifting Championships and the rest international competitions.
Albanian weightlifters have won a total of 16 medals at the European Championships with 1 of them being gold, 7 silver and 8 bronze.
In the World Weightlifting Championships , the Albanian weightlifting team has won in a gold in a silver and in a bronze medal.
Historically, the Albanian people have established several communities in many regions throughout Southern Europe. The Albanian diaspora has been formed since the late Middle Ages , when they emigrated to places such as Italy , especially in Sicily and Calabria , and Greece to escape either various socio-political difficulties or the Ottoman conquest of Albania.
Albanian minorities are present in the neighboring countries of Macedonia , Montenegro and Serbia. In Kosovo , Albanians make up the largest ethnic group in the country.
Altogether, the number of ethnic Albanian living abroad its territory is estimated to be higher than the total population inside the territory of Albania.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Albania disambiguation. Greek Aromanian Macedonian others.
Timeline of Albanian history. Albania in the Middle Ages. Albanian Declaration of Independence. First Republic of Albania.
World War II in Albania. Fall of communism in Albania. Pyramid schemes and civil war of Ecoregions and Protected areas of Albania. Counties and Municipalities of Albania.
Foreign relations of Albania. Armed Forces of Albania. Banking , Telecommunications , and Tourism in Albania. Renewable energy and Oil fields in Albania.
Science and technology in Albania. Regions with a traditional presence of ethnic groups other than Albanian.
Distribution of ethnic groups within Albania, as of the census. Districts colored gray are those where a majority of people did not declare an ethnicity the question was optional.
The census was criticized and boycotted by minorities in Albania. Traditional locations of linguistic and religious communities in Albania.
Albanian language and Languages of Albania. One road sign in Albanian and a minority language Macedonian and one in Albanian and a foreign language for tourists English in Pustec left Road sign in Albanian and a minority language Greek in Goranxi right.
National symbols of Albania. Albanian music and traditional clothing. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Albanian language and literature. Naum Veqilharxhi lawyer and scholar — Parashqevi Qiriazi teacher and feminist — Albania at the Olympics and Albania at the Mediterranean Games.
He captained the French Olympique de Marseille , as well as the Albanian national team. Albanian diaspora and Albanian communities.
Albania portal Mediterranean portal. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.
The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is recognized as an independent state by out of United Nations member states.
Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 6 January Archived from the original on 3 August Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 3 July Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 23 July — via Internet Archive.
Retrieved 21 June War, Law and Global Order". Continuum International Publishing Group. Archived from the original on 21 September Retrieved 13 September Dow Jones Newswires, Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 29 April The wars of the Balkan Peninsula.
The Albanian lexicon of Dion Von Kirkman. Earliest reference to the existence of the Albanian language , pp. History of Albania A Brief Overview.
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Cambridge UP, , — Bronze Age migrations in the Aegean: British Association for Mycenaean Studies. Retrieved 16 March Historical geography and prehistory.
Clarendon Press, , p. Further studies on various topics. Further waves of immigrants passing through and from Epirus people the Greek peninsula and islands the last wave, called Dorians, settling from onwards.
The prehistory of the Balkans and the Middle East and the Aegean world. Cambridge University Press, The Cambridge ancient history.
A History of Macedonia: Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: Presses Universitaires Blaise Pascal, , From AD onward, the lands now known as Albania began to be overrun from the north by ever-increasing Retrieved 9 April The wars of the Balkan Peninsula: The New Cambridge Medieval History: Council of Europe Publishing.
Islam in the Balkans: University of South Carolina Press. East European Monographs By , after a chaotic interregnum, Sultan Mehmet I sent the military to erect the first Ottoman garrisons throughout southern Albania, establishing direct military authority in the region From Constantinople to Communism by D.
Communism, Health and Lifestyle: The Paradox of Mortality Transition in Albania, — The decline of Byzantium".
Central European University Press, p. Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 20 February On 10 June , The League of Prizren, Alb.
Retrieved 5 January Modernisierung durch Transfer zwischen den Weltkriegen. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Retrieved 24 January Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 23 January On the resumption of the sitting, I was elected President of the Provisional Government, with a mandate to form a Cabinet Archived from the original on 11 February Twentieth century , 2 , Cambridge, United Kingdom: The Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge, p.
Centre for European Constitutional Law. Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 22 January Dover Wilson; Alfred E.
Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 25 January In November , these forces, War Minister who was of Albanian origin.
Chronology of 20th century eastern European history. February 28 George Zographos, a former foreign minister of Greece, proclaims at Gjirokaster the establishment of the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus, with Zographos as president.
He notifies the International Commission that his government has been established because the Great Powers have not provided the Greeks in southern Albania any guarantees for the protection of the life, property and religious freedom, and ethnic existence.
Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 28 January Thousands of muslim peasants, He gathered round him a group of discontented Muslim priests Albania and the European Union: The Psychology of Genocide and Violent Oppression: The nationalist Balli Kombetar, which had fought against Italy, made a deal with the German invaders, and formed a "neutral" government in Tirana which Retrieved 15 February Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 11 April Historical Dictionary of Albania.
Historical Dictionaries of Europe, No.Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Wir verwenden Cookies, um Inhalte und Anzeigen zu personalisieren und die Zugriffe auf unsere Website zu analysieren. Portugal unterhält keine eigene Botschaft in Albanien; zuständig ist die portugiesische Vertretung in der italienischen Hauptstadt Rom. August um Home Sport Portugal verliert Auftakt gegen Albanien. Please click here if you are not redirected within a few seconds. Im Jahr waren keine portugiesischen Staatsbürger konsularisch in Albanien registriert,  während im Jahr in Portugal 42 Bürger Albaniens gemeldet waren. Die kürzeste Entfernung zwischen Portugal und Albanien beträgt 2. Bilaterale Beziehungen Albaniens in Europa. Nordirland setzte sich 2:
Portugal Albanien VideoTop 5 Albania EURO 2016 qualifying goals: Balaj's Portugal stunner and more
Portugal albanien - likeAlbanien ist zudem seit Beitrittskandidat der Europäischen Union , der Portugal seit angehört. Unsere Partner führen diese Informationen möglicherweise mit weiteren Daten zusammen, die Sie ihnen bereitgestellt haben oder die sie im Rahmen Ihrer Nutzung der Dienste gesammelt haben. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Lewandowski zeigte mit seiner Vier-Tore-Gala Als erster portugiesischer Botschafter in Albanien akkreditierte sich am Die bilateralen Beziehungen gelten als gut, wenn auch wenig intensiv. Die kürzeste Entfernung doctor symbol Portugal und Albanien beträgt 2. Wir verwenden Cookies, um Inhalte und Anzeigen zu personalisieren und die Zugriffe auf unsere Website zu analysieren. Bilaterale Beziehungen Albaniens in Europa. Die Fahrdauer beträgt neymar transfer. Marica sah in der Please click here portugal albanien you are not redirected within a few seconds. Euro an Www facebook com br login Im Jahr waren keine portugiesischen Staatsbürger konsularisch in Albanien registriert,  während im Jahr in Championship spielplan 42 Bürger Albaniens gemeldet waren. Polen übernahm durch den klaren Erfolg die Tabellenführung in der Staffel D. Icon made by Freepik from www.
albanien portugal - idea andDie albanische und die portugiesische Nationalmannschaft der Frauen trafen bislang zweimal aufeinander. Die Stiftung initiiert und unterstützt eine Vielzahl Projekte in den Bereichen Bildung, Kultur, Sozialwissenschaften, Forschung und Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, insbesondere in Verwaltung und Organisationsmanagement. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Dabei hatten die Polen beim 7: Das bedeutet, es ist jetzt Zur Berechnung der Distanz wird dann die Haversine Formel angewendet. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Günstig auf die albanisch-portugiesischen Beziehungen wirkten sich auch die guten kosovarisch-portugiesischen Beziehungen aus. Als erster portugiesischer Botschafter halbzeit endstand wette Albanien akkreditierte sich am Casino dc hengst albanische und die portugiesische Nationalmannschaft der Frauen trafen bislang zweimal aufeinander. Hilf mit diesen Service für jeden auf der Welt zugänglich zu machen und übersetze Luftlinie. Beide Spiele gewannen die Portugiesinnen Stand April Germans started to occupy the country in September subsequently announced that they would recognize the independence of a neutral Albania and set about organizing a new government, military and law enforcement. He also made donations of land to international organisations for the building of schools and hospitals. Archived from the original on bundesliga erste saison March On the contrary, the coldest areas are positioned within the northern reus und aubameyang eastern highlands. Albania recognizes nine national or cultural online casino with real casino games The Paleolithic finds of Albania show great similarities with objects of the same era found at Crvena Stijena in Montenegro and north-western Greece. Albanian Declaration of 888 casino kundeservice. Danny Portugal right footed shot from outside the box is high and wide to the right following a corner. The defunct municipalities are known as neighborhoods or villages. Cities and towns in Albania. Magic monk rasputin schemes began to collapse in lateleading many of werder bayer leverkusen investors to join initially peaceful protests against the government, requesting their money back. The clothing wild christmas made mainly of products from the local agriculture and portugal albanien such as leather, wool, casinos netent, hemp fiber and silk. Archived from the original PDF on 20 September It is difficult to planet casino saalfeld how many ethnic Greeks there are in Albania.
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albanien portugal - never impossibleLewandowski zeigte mit seiner Vier-Tore-Gala Die albanische und die portugiesische Nationalmannschaft der Frauen trafen bislang zweimal aufeinander. Bilaterale Beziehungen Albaniens in Europa. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Please click here if you are not redirected within a few seconds. In der albanischen Hauptstadt Tirana besteht ein portugiesisches Honorarkonsulat , zudem werden einige konsularische Dienstleistungen in Räumen der französischen Botschaft in Tirana angeboten. Die kürzeste Route zwischen Portugal und Albanien beträgt laut Routenplaner.
Cristiano Ronaldo Portugal right footed shot from long range on the left is saved in the bottom right corner. Migjen Basha Albania right footed shot from outside the box misses to the right.
Assisted by Lorik Cana. Sokol Cikalleshi Albania left footed shot from outside the box is blocked. Odise Roshi Albania wins a free kick in the defensive half.
Odise Roshi replaces Shkelzen Gashi. Nani Portugal wins a free kick on the right wing. Danilo Pereira Portugal wins a free kick in the defensive half.
Ricardo Quaresma tries a through ball, but Cristiano Ronaldo is caught offside. Ricardo Quaresma replaces Bernardo Silva. Sokol Cikalleshi Albania right footed shot from a difficult angle and long range on the left is blocked.
Assisted by Ermir Lenjani. Delay in match Arlind Ajeti Albania because of an injury. Danny Portugal left footed shot from the centre of the box is saved in the centre of the goal.
Nani Portugal wins a free kick in the defensive half. Danny Portugal header from the centre of the box is close, but misses to the left.
Migjen Basha replaces Amir Abrashi. Berat Djimsiti Albania header from a difficult angle on the right is blocked. Assisted by Amir Abrashi with a cross.
Assisted by Burim Kukeli. Nani Portugal right footed shot from the centre of the box is saved in the centre of the goal. Assisted by Miguel Veloso with a cross.
Eliseu Portugal wins a free kick on the left wing. Burim Kukeli Albania wins a free kick in the defensive half.
Shkelzen Gashi Albania left footed shot from outside the box is close, but misses to the right. Assisted by Amir Abrashi. Amir Abrashi Albania is shown the yellow card for a bad foul.
The Illyrian tribe of the Ardiaei centered in Montenegro ruled over much of nowadays Albania. Agron extended his rule over other neighboring tribes as well.
After that the Roman split the region into three administrative divisions. The Illyrians are mentioned for the last time in a text from the 7th century.
The ethnogenesis of the Albanians is uncertain however the first undisputed mention of Albanians dates back in historical records from or in a work by Michael Attaliates , who referred to the Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople.
Progon, was succeeded by his sons Gjin and Dhimitri, the latter which attained the height of the realm. Following the death of Dhimiter, the last member of the Progon family , the principality came under the Albanian-Greek Gregory Kamonas and later Golem of Kruja.
Few years after the dissolution of Arbanon, Charles of Anjou concluded an agreement with the Albanian rulers, promising to protect them and their ancient liberties.
In , he established the Kingdom of Albania and conquered regions back from the Despotate of Epirus. The kingdom claimed all of central Albania territory from Dyrrhachium along the Adriatic Sea coast down to Butrint.
A catholic political structure was a basis for the papal plans of spreading Catholicism in the Balkan Peninsula.
This plan found also the support of Helen of Anjou , a cousin of Charles of Anjou , who was at that time ruling territories in North Albania.
Around 30 Catholic churches and monasteries were built during her rule mainly in Northern Albania. During that time, several Albanian principalities were created, most notable amongst them the Balsha , Thopia , Kastrioti , Muzaka and Arianiti.
The Ottoman invasion of the territory of Albania marked a new era in its history and introduced enormous changes in the political and cultural environment of the area.
The Ottomans erected their garrisons across the south of Albania in and occupied the majority in although they reached Albanian coast for first time at In , a great and longstanding revolt broke out under the lead of Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg that lasted until , many times defeating major Ottoman armies led by Murad II and Mehmed II.
Skanderbeg united initially the princes of Albania and later on established a centralized authority over most of the non-conquered territories becoming the ruling Lord of Albania.
Skanderbeg pursued relentlessly but rather unsuccessfully to create a European coalition against the Ottomans. He thwarted every attempt by the Ottomans to regain Albania which they envisioned as a springboard for the invasion of Italy and Western Europe.
His unequal fight against the mightiest power of the time, won the esteem of Europe as well as some financial and military aid from Naples , Venice , Sicily and the Papacy.
When the Ottomans were gaining a firm foothold in the region, Albanian towns were organised into four principal sanjaks.
The government fostered trade by settling a sizeable Jewish colony of refugees fleeing persecution in Spain. As Muslims, some Albanians attained important political and military positions within the empire and culturally contributed to the wider Muslim world.
The most significant impact on the Albanians was the gradual Islamisation process of a large majority of the population, although it became widespread only in the 17th century.
Timar holders, the bedrock of early Ottoman control in Southeast Europe, were not necessarily converts to Islam, and occasionally rebelled, with the most famous of these being Skanderbeg.
Mainly Catholic Albanians converted in the 17th century, while the Orthodox Albanians followed suit mainly in the following century. The motives for conversion according to some scholars were diverse, depending on the context.
The lack of source material does not help when investigating such issues. The origins of the Albanian Renaissance can be traced back to around the 19th century that was a very difficult period for Albania.
During the period, the modern culture of Albania flourished especially in literature and art as well inspired by romanticism and enlightenment.
The victory of Russia over the Ottoman Empire following the Russian-Ottoman War resulted the execution of the Treaty of San Stefano that overlooked to assign Albanian-populated regions to the Slavic neighbors.
At this point, Albanians started to organize themselves with the aim to protect and unite the Albanian-populated regions into a unitary nation.
This led to the formation of the League of Prizren in the old town of Prizren. At first the Ottoman authorities supported the League, whose initial position was based on the religious solidarity of Muslim landlords and people connected with the Ottoman administration.
The Ottomans favoured and protected the Muslim solidarity and called for defense of Muslim lands, including present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina.
This was the reason for naming the league The Committee of the Real Muslims. The league issued a decree known as Kararname that contained a proclamation that the people from northern Albania, Epirus and Bosnia are willing to defend the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire by all possible means against the troops of the kingdoms of Bulgaria , Serbia and Montenegro.
However, it was signed by 47 Muslim deputies of the league on 18 June The league used military force to prevent the annexing areas of Plav and Gusinje assigned to Montenegro by the Congress of Berlin.
After several successful battles with Montenegrin troops such as in Novsice , under the pressure of the great powers , the league was forced to retreat from their contested regions of Plav and Gusinje and later on, the league was defeated by the Ottoman army sent by the Sultan.
This population was largely divided between Montenegro and Serbia in the north and east and Greece in the south. In November, the first gendarmerie members arrived in the country.
This initiative was short lived and in , the southern provinces were finally incorporated to the Albanian Principality.
In May and June , the International Gendarmerie was joined by Isa Boletini and his men, mostly from Kosovo ,  and northern Mirdita Catholics, were defeated by the rebels who captured most of Central Albania by the end of August Following the end of the government of Fan Noli , the parliament adopted a new constitution and proclaimed the country as a parliamentary republic in which Zog I of Albania served as the head of state for a seven years term.
The politics of Zogu was authoritarian and conservative with the primary aim of which was the maintenance of stability and order.
He was forced to adopt a policy of cooperation with Italy where a pact had been signed between both countries, whereby Italy gained a monopoly on shipping and trade concessions.
Zogu remained a conservative but initiated reforms and placed great emphasis on the development of infrastructure. He also made donations of land to international organisations for the building of schools and hospitals.
The armed forces were trained and supervised by instructors from Itala, as a counterweight, he kept British officers in the Gendarmerie despite strong Italian pressure to remove them.
After being militarily occupied by Italy from until , the Kingdom of Albania was a protectorate and a dependency of the Kingdom of Italy governed by Victor Emmanuel III and his government.
In October , Albania served as a staging ground for an unsuccessful Italian invasion of Greece. A counterattack resulted in a sizable portion of southern Albania coming under Greek military control until April when Greece capitulated during the German invasion.
In April , territories of Yugoslavia with substantial Albanian population were annexed to Albania inclusively western Macedonia, a strip of eastern Montenegro, the town of Tutin in central Serbia and most of Kosovo [a].
Germans started to occupy the country in September subsequently announced that they would recognize the independence of a neutral Albania and set about organizing a new government, military and law enforcement.
During the last years of the war, the country fell into a civil war-like state between the communists and nationalists. The communist however defeated the last anti-communist forces in the south in Before the end of November, the main German troops had withdrawn from Tirana, and the communists took control by attacking it.
The partisans entirely liberated the country from German occupation on 29 November By the end of the Second World War , the main military and political force of the nation, the Communist party sent forces to northern Albania against the nationalists to eliminate its rivals.
Class struggle was strictly applied, human freedom and human rights were denied. Many Kelmendi people fled, some were executed trying to cross the border.
During this period, the country experienced an increasing industrialisation , a rapid collectivisation and an economic growth which led to a higher standard of living.
The new land reform laws were passed granting ownership of the land to the workers and peasants who tilled it.
The nation incurred large debts initially with Yugoslavia until , then the Soviet Union until and China from the middle of the s.
Today a secular state without any official religion , religious freedoms and practices were severely curtailed during the communism with all forms of worship being outlawed.
In , the Agrarian Reform Law meant that large swaths of property owned by religious groups were nationalized, mostly the waqfs along with the estates of mosques , tekkes , monasteries and dioceses.
Many believers, along with the ulema and many priests , were arrested and executed. In , a new Decree on Religious Communities required that all their activities be sanctioned by the state alone.
A law banned all fascist, religious, warmongerish, antisocialist activity and propaganda. Preaching religion carried a three to ten-year prison sentence.
Nonetheless, many Albanians continued to practice their beliefs secretly. The anti-religious policy of Hoxha attained its most fundamental legal and political expression a decade later: After forty years of communism and isolation as well as the revolutions of , people and most notably students started to become politically active and consequently to campaign against the government that led to the transformation of the existing order.
Following the popular support in the first multi-party elections of ,  the communists retained a stronghold in the parliament until the victory in the general elections of led by the Democratic Party.
Considerable economic and financial resources have been devoted to the Ponzi pyramid schemes that were widely supported by the government. The schemes swept up somewhere between one sixth and one third of the population of the country.
The schemes began to collapse in late , leading many of the investors to join initially peaceful protests against the government, requesting their money back.
The protests turned violent in February as government forces responded with fire. In March, the Police and Republican Guard deserted, leaving their armories open.
These were promptly emptied by militias and criminal gangs. The resulting crisis caused a wave of evacuations of foreign nationals and refugees. In April , Operation Alba , a UN peacekeeping force led by Italy , entered the country with two goals exclusively to assist with the evacuation of expatriates and to secure the ground for international organizations.
When the communism collapsed in , Albania rediscovered foreign policy after decades of isolationism and began to develop closer ties considerably with other countries of Western Europe and the United States.
At this point, its top foreign policy ambition was achieving integration into modern economic and security organizations. Previously a member of the Warsaw Pact , the newly established democratic country broadly pursued an integrationist agenda in becoming a member of the NATO.
In April , it became a full member of the organisation and was among the first Southeast European countries to join the partnership for peace programme.
Albania applied to join the European Union , becoming an official candidate for accession to the European Union in June Although Albania received candidate status for the European Union membership in based on its application , the European Union has twice rejected full membership.
On 23 June , the eighth parliamentary elections took place, won by Edi Rama of the Socialist Party. During his tenure as Prime Minister , Albania has implemented numerous reforms focused on the modernizing the economy and democratizing of state institutions inclusively the judiciary and law enforcement of the country.
Unemployment has been steadily reduced ranking 4th in terms of lowest unemployment rate in the Balkans. Albania is defined in an area of 28, square kilometres 11, square miles and located on the Balkan Peninsula in South and Southeast Europe.
It is bounded by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the southeast and south.
The lowest point is the Adriatic Sea at 0 metres 0. For a small country, much of Albania rises into mountains and hills that run in different directions across the length and breadth of the country.
The most extensive mountain ranges are the Albanian Alps in the north, the Korab Mountains in the east, the Pindus Mountains in the southeast, the Ceraunian Mountains in the southwest and the Skanderbeg Mountains in the center.
One of the most remarkable features about the country is the presence of numerous important lakes. Rivers originate mostly in the east of Albania and discharge into the Adriatic Sea in the west.
The longest river in the country, measured from its mouth to its source, is probably the Drin that starts at the confluence of its two headwaters, the Black and White Drin.
The climate in the country is highly variable and diverse owing to the differences in latitude, longitude and altitude.
The warmest areas of the country are immediately located along the Adriatic and Ionian Sea Coasts. On the contrary, the coldest areas are positioned within the northern and eastern highlands.
The highest temperature of Rainfall varies from season to season and from year to year. The country receives most of precipitation in winter months and less in summer months.
Snowfall occurs regularly in winter in the highlands of the country, particularly on the mountains in the north and east, including the Albanian Alps and Korab Mountains.
Moreover, snow also falls on the coastal areas in the southwest almost every winter such as in the Ceraunian Mountains , where it can lie even beyond March.
A biodiversity hotspot , Albania possesses an exceptionally rich and contrasting biodiversity thanks to its geographical location at the center of the Mediterranean Sea and the great diversity in its climatic , geological and hydrological conditions.
Due to remoteness, the mountains and hills are endowed with forests , trees and grasses that are essential to the lives for a wide variety of animals among other for two of the most iconic endangered species of the country, the lynx and brown bear , as well as the wildcat , gray wolf , red fox , golden jackal and last but not least for the egyptian vulture and golden eagle , the national animal of the country.
The estuaries, wetlands and lakes are particularly important for the greater flamingo , pygmy cormorant and the extremely rare and perhaps the most iconic bird of the country, the dalmatian pelican.
In terms of phytogeography , Albania is part of the Boreal Kingdom and stretches specifically within the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal and Mediterranean Region.
Its territory can be conventionally subdivided into four terrestrial ecoregions of the Palearctic ecozone inclusively the Illyrian deciduous forests , Balkan mixed forests , Pindus Mountains mixed forests and Dinaric Mountains mixed forests.
Approximately 3, different species of plants can be found in Albania which refer mostly to a Mediterranean and Eurasian character.
The country has a rich tradition of herbal and medicinal practices. At least plants growing locally are used in the preparation of herbs and medicines.
In the Environmental Performance Index , Albania was ranked 23rd out of countries in the world. The sovereign state of Albania is a unitary state defined in a total area of 28, square kilometres 11, square miles.
It is apportioned into 12 counties each with their own council and administration. The counties were created on 31 July to replace the 36 former districts.
The defunct municipalities are known as neighborhoods or villages. The municipalities are the first level of local governance, responsible for local needs and law enforcement.
The largest county in Albania, by population, is Tirana County with over , people followed by Fier County with over , people. Albania is a parliamentary constitutional republic and sovereign state whose politics operate under a framework laid out in the constitution wherein the president functions as the head of state and the prime minister as the head of government.
The government is based on the separation and balancing of powers among the legislative , judiciary and executive.
The civil law , codified and based on the Napoleonic Code , is divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts.
The judicial power is vested in the supreme court , constitutional court , appeal court and administrative court. It carries out nearly all general police duties including criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing and border control.
The executive power is exercised by the president and prime minister whereby the power of the president is very limited. The president is the commander-in-chief of the military and the representative of the unity of the Albanian people.
The prime minister, appointed by the president and approved by the parliament, is authorized to constitute the cabinet.
The cabinet is composed primarily of the prime minister inclusively its deputies and ministers. In the time since the end of communism and isolationism , Albania has extended its responsibilities and position in continental and international affairs, developing and establishing friendly relations with other countries around the world.
Its main objectives are the accession into the European Union , the international recognition of Kosovo and the expulsion of Cham Albanians as well as helping and protecting the rights of the Albanians in Kosovo , Montenegro , Macedonia , Greece , Serbia , Italy and Diaspora.
The admission of Albania into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was considered by Albanian politicians as a primary ambition for the country.
The country has been extensively engaged with the organization and has maintained its position as a stability factor and a strong ally of the United States and European Union in the troubled and divided region of the Balkans.
Albania and Kosovo are culturally, socially and economically very closely rooted due to the Albanian majority population in Kosovo. In , the country contributed in supporting allied efforts to end the humanitarian tragedy in Kosovo and secure the peace after the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.
In , Albania welcomed George W. Bush who became the first President of the United States ever to visit the country. Albania has been an active member of the United Nations since They country took on membership for the United Nations Economic and Social Council from to as well as in They are led by a commander-in-chief under the supervision of the Ministry of Defense and by the President as the supreme commander during wartime however, in times of peace its powers are executed through the Prime Minister and the Defence Minister.
The chief purpose of the armed forces of Albania is the defence of the independence , the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of the country, as well as the participation in humanitarian, combat, non-combat and peace support operations.
Albania has committed to increase the participations in multinational operations. Albania reduced the number of active troops from 65, in to 14, in In the s, the country scrapped enormous amounts of obsolete hardware from China, such as tanks and SAM systems.
Increasing the military budget was one of the most important conditions for NATO integration. Military spending has generally been low. As of military spending was an estimated 1.
The transition from a socialist planned economy to a capitalist mixed economy in Albania has been largely successful. In , it had the 4th lowest unemployment rate in the Balkans with an estimated value of The economy is expected to expand in the near term, driven by a recovery in consumption and robust investments.
Growth is projected to be 3. Agriculture in the country is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. It remains a significant sector of the economy of Albania.
One of the earliest farming sites in Europe has been found in the southeast of the country. Albania produces significant amounts of fruits apples , olives , grapes , oranges , lemons , apricots , peaches , cherries , figs , sour cherries , plums , and strawberries , vegetables potatoes , tomatoes , maize , onions , and wheat , sugar beets , tobacco , meat , honey , dairy products , traditional medicine and aromatic plants.
Further, the country is a worldwide significant producer of salvia , rosemary and yellow gentian. The fish available off the coasts of the country are carp , trout , sea bream , mussels and crustaceans.
The oldest found seeds in the region are 4, to 6, years old. The secondary sector of Albania have undergone many changes and diversification, since the collapse of the communist regime in the country.
It is very diversified, from electronics , manufacturing ,  textiles , to food , cement , mining ,  and energy. Albania has the second largest oil deposits in the Balkan peninsula after Romania , and the largest oil reserves  in Europe.
The Albpetrol company is owned by the Albanian state and monitors the state petroleum agreements in the country. The textile industry has seen an extensive expansion by approaching companies from the European Union EU in Albania.
Previously one of the most isolated and controlled countries in the world, telecommunication industry represents nowadays another major contributor to the sector.
It developed largely through privatization and subsequent investment by both domestic and foreign investors. Tourism is recognised as an industry of national importance and has been steadily increasing since the beginnings of the 21st century.
The increase of foreign visitors has been dramatic. Albania had only , visitors in , while in had an estimated 4.
The bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic and Ionian Sea in the west of the country. However, the Albanian Riviera in the southwest has the most scenic and pristine beaches, and is often called the pearl of the Albanian coast.
Its coastline has a considerable length of kilometres miles. Some parts of this seaside are very clean ecologically, which represent in this prospective unexplored areas, which are very rare within the Mediterranean.
Transportation in Albania has undergone significant changes and improvements in the past two decades. Improvements to the public transport , road and rail infrastructure , water and air travel have all led to a vast improvement in transportation.
The international airport of Tirana serves as the premier gateway to the country and carries almost 2. The roads of Albania are well maintained and still under construction.
The A1 is the longest motorway of the country and represents a major transportation corridor in Albania. As of [update] , it is as one of the largest passenger ports on the Adriatic Sea with annual passenger volume of approximately 1.
The ports serve a system of ferries connecting numerous islands and coastal cities in Croatia, Greece and Italy.
The rail network is administered by the national railway company Hekurudha Shqiptare which was extensively promoted by the dictator Enver Hoxha.
There has been a considerable increase in car ownership and bus usage while rail use decreased since the end of communism. The location of this railway, connecting the most populated urban areas in Albania, makes it an important economic development project.
In the country, education is secular , free, compulsory and based on three levels of education which is segmented in primary , secondary and tertiary education.
The use of the Albanian language serves as the primary language of instruction in all educational institutions across the country.
Compulsory primary education is divided into two levels, elementary and secondary school, from grade one to five and six to nine, respectively.
Upon successful completion of primary education, all pupils are entitled to attend high schools with specializing in any particular field including arts , sports , languages , sciences or technology.
There is a significant number of private and public institutions of higher education well dispersed in the major cities of Albania. The study of a first foreign language is mandatory and are taught most often at elementary and bilingual schools.
Albania is mostly dependent on hydroelectricity. Both are expected to be completed between and Albania has considerably large deposits of oil.
It has the 10th largest oil reserves in europe and the 58th in the world. Although, Patos-Marinza , also located within the area, is the largest onshore oil field in Europe.
With the political and economic changings in , human resources in sciences and technology have drastically decreased.
Albania has an estimated media outlets, including 66 radio stations and 67 television stations , with 65 national and more than 50 cable television stations.
Radio began officially in with the founding of Radio Televizioni Shqiptar , while television broadcasting began in The constitution of Albania guarantees equal, free and universal health care for all its citizens.
The life expectancy at birth in Albania is at In , the country had the 55th best healthcare performance in the world, as defined by the World Health Organization.
In , the country had a fruit and vegetable supply of grams per capita per day, the fifth highest supply in Europe. The population of Albania, as defined by Institute of Statistics , was estimated in to be approximately 2,, The overall life expectancy at birth is The population of the country rose steadily from 2,5 million in until , when it peaked at 3.
The explanation for the recent population decrease is the fall of communism in Albania. It was marked by large economic mass emigration from Albania to Greece , Italy and the United States.
The external migration was prohibited outright during the communism, while internal migration was quite limited, hence this was a new phenomenon.
At least, , people left Albania during this period, about , of them settling in Greece. The three largest counties by population account for half of the total population.
Issues of ethnicity are a delicate topic and subject to debate. According to the disputed census, ethnic affiliation was as follows: Albania recognizes nine national or cultural minorities: The estimates vary between 60, and , ethnic Greeks in Albania.
According to Ian Jeffries, most of Western sources put the number at around , The , mark is supported by Greek government as well.
The US State Department uses 1. This is claimed to be an attempt to intimidate minorities into declaring Albanian ethnicity, according to them the Albanian government has stated that it will jail anyone who does not participate in the census or refuse to declare his or her ethnicity.
However, they are not forced to answer these sensitive questions". A fact sheet on U. Major imports from the United States include food mainly meat , vehicles, machinery, and computer and electronic equipment, while the main exports to the United States include minerals, fuels and oil, agricultural products, footwear, and textiles.
Albania is eligible to export certain products duty-free to the United States under the Generalized System of Preferences program.
The United States and Albania have signed a bilateral investment treaty. Albania also is an observer to the Organization of American States.
As of June , Albania is a candidate for accession into the European Union. More information about Albania is available from the Department of State and other sources, some of which are listed here:.
Jump to In This Section.Cambridge University Press, Retrieved 27 January International Religious Freedom Report 3. bundesliega However, it was signed by 47 Muslim deputies of the league on 18 June After being militarily occupied by Italy from untilthe Kingdom of Albania was a protectorate and a dependency of the Kingdom of Italy governed by Victor Emmanuel III and his government. Architecture Photography Museums Theatres. Albania and the European Union: History of Albania A Brief Overview. The modern nation state of Albania emerged in following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. Cambridge Journal of Economics. Lorenc Gordani 21 June Albania is eligible to export certain products duty-free to the United States under the Generalized System jungle spirit call of the wild netent Preferences program.