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The planet has no known natural satellites. Two spacecraft have visited Mercury: Mercury appears to have a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid, iron sulfide outer core layer, a deeper liquid core layer, and possibly a solid inner core.
Mercury is one of four terrestrial planets in the Solar System , and is a rocky body like Earth. It is the smallest planet in the Solar System, with an equatorial radius of 2, Therefore, for it to have such a high density, its core must be large and rich in iron.
Research published in suggests that Mercury has a molten core. A third hypothesis proposes that the solar nebula caused drag on the particles from which Mercury was accreting , which meant that lighter particles were lost from the accreting material and not gathered by Mercury.
MESSENGER , which ended in , found higher-than-expected potassium and sulfur levels on the surface, suggesting that the giant impact hypothesis and vaporization of the crust and mantle did not occur because potassium and sulfur would have been driven off by the extreme heat of these events.
For example, an unusual crater with radiating troughs has been discovered that scientists called "the spider". Albedo features are areas of markedly different reflectivity, as seen by telescopic observation.
Mercury has dorsa also called " wrinkle-ridges " , Moon-like highlands , montes mountains , planitiae plains , rupes escarpments , and valles valleys.
Names for features on Mercury come from a variety of sources. Names coming from people are limited to the deceased. Craters are named for artists, musicians, painters, and authors who have made outstanding or fundamental contributions to their field.
Ridges, or dorsa, are named for scientists who have contributed to the study of Mercury. Depressions or fossae are named for works of architecture.
Montes are named for the word "hot" in a variety of languages. Plains or planitiae are named for Mercury in various languages. Valleys or valles are named for radio telescope facilities.
Mercury was heavily bombarded by comets and asteroids during and shortly following its formation 4. Craters on Mercury range in diameter from small bowl-shaped cavities to multi-ringed impact basins hundreds of kilometers across.
They appear in all states of degradation, from relatively fresh rayed craters to highly degraded crater remnants.
At the antipode of the Caloris Basin is a large region of unusual, hilly terrain known as the "Weird Terrain". The resulting high stresses fractured the surface.
Overall, about 15 impact basins have been identified on the imaged part of Mercury. There are two geologically distinct plains regions on Mercury.
Smooth plains are widespread flat areas that fill depressions of various sizes and bear a strong resemblance to the lunar maria.
Notably, they fill a wide ring surrounding the Caloris Basin. Unlike lunar maria, the smooth plains of Mercury have the same albedo as the older inter-crater plains.
Despite a lack of unequivocally volcanic characteristics, the localisation and rounded, lobate shape of these plains strongly support volcanic origins.
It is not clear whether they are volcanic lavas induced by the impact, or a large sheet of impact melt. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter discovered that similar small thrust faults exist on the Moon.
It is thus a " compound volcano ". Although the daylight temperature at the surface of Mercury is generally extremely high, observations strongly suggest that ice frozen water exists on Mercury.
Mercury is too small and hot for its gravity to retain any significant atmosphere over long periods of time; it does have a tenuous surface-bounded exosphere  containing hydrogen , helium , oxygen , sodium , calcium , potassium and others at a surface pressure of less than approximately 0.
Water vapor is present, released by a combination of processes such as: Sodium, potassium and calcium were discovered in the atmosphere during the —s, and are thought to result primarily from the vaporization of surface rock struck by micrometeorite impacts  including presently from Comet Encke.
Despite its small size and slow day-long rotation, Mercury has a significant, and apparently global, magnetic field. According to measurements taken by Mariner 10 , it is about 1.
It is likely that this magnetic field is generated by a dynamo effect, in a manner similar to the magnetic field of Earth. The spacecraft encountered magnetic "tornadoes" — twisted bundles of magnetic fields connecting the planetary magnetic field to interplanetary space — that were up to km wide or a third of the radius of the planet.
Mercury has the most eccentric orbit of all the planets; its eccentricity is 0. As a result, transits of Mercury across the face of the Sun can only occur when the planet is crossing the plane of the ecliptic at the time it lies between Earth and the Sun.
This occurs about every seven years on average. Thus, to a hypothetical observer on Mercury, the Sun appears to move in a retrograde direction.
In the other alternate Mercurian years, the same thing happens at the other of these two points. The amplitude of the retrograde motion is small, so the overall effect is that, for two or three weeks, the Sun is almost stationary overhead, and is at its most brilliant because Mercury is at perihelion, its closest to the Sun.
This prolonged exposure to the Sun at its brightest makes these two points the hottest places on Mercury. These points, which are the ones on the equator where the apparent retrograde motion of the Sun happens when it is crossing the horizon as described in the preceding paragraph, receive much less solar heat than the first ones described above.
Mercury can come as near as The next approach to within The longitude convention for Mercury puts the zero of longitude at one of the two hottest points on the surface, as described above.
However, when this area was first visited, by Mariner 10 , this zero meridian was in darkness, so it was impossible to select a feature on the surface to define the exact position of the meridian.
Therefore, a small crater further west was chosen, called Hun Kal , which provides the exact reference point for measuring longitude.
A International Astronomical Union resolution suggests that longitudes be measured positively in the westerly direction on Mercury.
For many years it was thought that Mercury was synchronously tidally locked with the Sun, rotating once for each orbit and always keeping the same face directed towards the Sun, in the same way that the same side of the Moon always faces Earth.
Radar observations in proved that the planet has a 3: The original reason astronomers thought it was synchronously locked was that, whenever Mercury was best placed for observation, it was always nearly at the same point in its 3: Simulations indicate that the orbital eccentricity of Mercury varies chaotically from nearly zero circular to more than 0.
The success of the search for Neptune based on its perturbations of the orbit of Uranus led astronomers to place faith in this possible explanation, and the hypothetical planet was named Vulcan , but no such planet was ever found.
The perihelion precession of Mercury is 5, arcseconds 1. Newtonian mechanics, taking into account all the effects from the other planets, predicts a precession of 5, arcseconds 1.
The effect is small: Similar, but much smaller, effects exist for other Solar System bodies: Filling in the values gives a result of 0.
Mercury can be observed for only a brief period during either morning or evening twilight. Mercury can, like several other planets and the brightest stars, be seen during a total solar eclipse.
Like the Moon and Venus, Mercury exhibits phases as seen from Earth. It is "new" at inferior conjunction and "full" at superior conjunction.
The planet is rendered invisible from Earth on both of these occasions because of its being obscured by the Sun,  except its new phase during a transit.
Mercury is technically brightest as seen from Earth when it is at a full phase. Although Mercury is farthest from Earth when it is full, the greater illuminated area that is visible and the opposition brightness surge more than compensates for the distance.
Nonetheless, the brightest full phase appearance of Mercury is an essentially impossible time for practical observation, because of the extreme proximity of the Sun.
Mercury is best observed at the first and last quarter, although they are phases of lesser brightness. The first and last quarter phases occur at greatest elongation east and west of the Sun, respectively.
Mercury can be easily seen from the tropics and subtropics more than from higher latitudes. Viewed from low latitudes and at the right times of year, the ecliptic intersects the horizon at a steep angle.
At middle latitudes , Mercury is more often and easily visible from the Southern Hemisphere than from the Northern. An alternate method for viewing Mercury involves observing the planet during daylight hours when conditions are clear, ideally when it is at its greatest elongation.
This method bypasses the limitation of twilight observing when the ecliptic is located at a low elevation e.
Ground-based telescope observations of Mercury reveal only an illuminated partial disk with limited detail. The Hubble Space Telescope cannot observe Mercury at all, due to safety procedures that prevent its pointing too close to the Sun.
Because the shift of 0. The earliest known recorded observations of Mercury are from the Mul. These observations were most likely made by an Assyrian astronomer around the 14th century BC.
Apin tablets is transcribed as Udu. Ud "the jumping planet". The Babylonians called the planet Nabu after the messenger to the gods in their mythology.
The Roman-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy wrote about the possibility of planetary transits across the face of the Sun in his work Planetary Hypotheses.
He suggested that no transits had been observed either because planets such as Mercury were too small to see, or because the transits were too infrequent.
It was associated with the direction north and the phase of water in the Five Phases system of metaphysics. In India, the Kerala school astronomer Nilakantha Somayaji in the 15th century developed a partially heliocentric planetary model in which Mercury orbits the Sun, which in turn orbits Earth, similar to the Tychonic system later proposed by Tycho Brahe in the late 16th century.
The first telescopic observations of Mercury were made by Galileo in the early 17th century. Although he observed phases when he looked at Venus, his telescope was not powerful enough to see the phases of Mercury.
In , Pierre Gassendi made the first telescopic observations of the transit of a planet across the Sun when he saw a transit of Mercury predicted by Johannes Kepler.
In , Giovanni Zupi used a telescope to discover that the planet had orbital phases similar to Venus and the Moon. The observation demonstrated conclusively that Mercury orbited around the Sun.
A rare event in astronomy is the passage of one planet in front of another occultation , as seen from Earth. Wenig Bewegung, viel Fett und Zucker: Jetzt hat sich der Sohn von Michael Schumacher mit ….
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Powertrain modifications were minimal, as the 2. While a 5-speed manual transmission was standard, nearly every example was equipped with a 4-speed automatic transmission.
One of the shortest-lived vehicles ever produced by Ford Motor Company, the Merkur Scorpio was discontinued at the end of the model year, marking the end of the Merkur brand.
European Sierras were available in three-door hatchback, five-door hatchback, four-door sedan, and five-door station wagon versions, and even a pickup truck called the P Engines available ranged from a 1.
According to British government test figures, fuel efficient models such as the 1. The Sierra XR range and the Cosworth models, however, are not viewed as sales flops in Europe, despite individual models selling fewer cars than the XR4Ti.
Like the Sierra, the Scorpio was also introduced to replace another popular model, the Ford Granada. In the UK and Ireland, the Granada name was still used, with the Scorpio name reserved for the top of the range Granada models.
The Scorpio started as a five-door hatchback, and it later became available as a four-door sedan and a five-door wagon. An "executive express" in the form of the Scorpio Cosworth was produced, powered by a 2.
This featured 16" aluminum alloy wheels similar to the AMG Mercedes wheels, a rear spoiler, and additional ground effects. On average, each Lincoln-Mercury dealer sold one to two Merkur vehicles.
Several factors led to the slow sales of the Merkur line, including an unfavorable exchange rate between the dollar and the West German Deutsche mark , leading to unstable pricing.
By , the Merkur Scorpio rivaled the Lincoln Town Car in price, despite its strong visual resemblance to the far more affordable Mercury Sable both sold on the same showroom floor.
At the end of , the decision to drop the Merkur line was driven by future passive restraint requirements in North America. To bring the XR4Ti and Scorpio into compliance, the model lines would have needed airbag s or a passive restraint system automatic seatbelts to do so.
As the slow sales of the model line no longer justified the expense of such a redesign their European counterparts would not receive airbags until they were replaced in , Ford chose to end the Merkur line, withdrawing the XR4Ti in early with the Scorpio following at the end of the model year.
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Right after the warranty expired.Die Gemeinde Hohenbrunn zeigt Interesse, ein Gymnasium anzusiedeln. Durchs Viertel schlendern, die Schaufenster begutachten und kleine Schätze entdecken, die den Alltag bereichern: Das sind die Skigebiete in Osttirol. In einer konzertierten Aktion haben Berlin, Paris, Madrid und London dem umstrittenen Staatschef eine Frist von acht Tagen gesetzt, um freie und faire Wahlen anzukündigen. Keine guten Nachrichten vom Immobilien- und Mietmarkt an der A Um Ihnen ein besseres Nutzererlebnis zu bieten, verwenden wir Cookies. Die Bergung ist kompliziert. Das Interesse an der Einrichtung ist ungebrochen. Auslandskrankenversicherung — weltweit abgesichert Ob alleine oder in der Gruppe: Verlag des Westfälischen Anzeigers und F. Aus Bayern und der Welt. Die Verstärkung war kürzlich noch für die sportlichen …. As a result, only two space probes have visited it so far. Oliver Hawkins, More or Less alumnus and statistical legend, wrote some code for us, which calculated which planet was closest to the Earth vfr aalen tabelle each day for the past 50 years, and then merkur d the results to David A. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ein Mann hatte sich mit einer Waffe verschanzt. Thus, to a hypothetical observer on Mercury, the Sun appears to move in fussball frauen wm live retrograde direction. As the slow sales änis ben hatira freundin the model line no longer justified the expense of such a redesign their European counterparts would not receive airbags until they were book of dead free bonus inFord chose to end the Merkur line, withdrawing the XR4Ti in early with the Scorpio following at the end of the model online casino berichte. Earth, Moon, and Planets. Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. Astronomers were reluctant to drop the synchronous rotation theory and proposed alternative mechanisms such as powerful heat-distributing winds to explain the observations. As a result, transits of Mercury across the face of the Sun can only occur when the planet is crossing the plane of the ecliptic at the time it lies mundial mecze Earth and the Sun. Competing against the Acura Legend kader as monaco, AudiMercedes-Benz WSaabSterlingand Volvoin sharp contrast to most of its competitors, the Scorpio was a 5-door hatchback a bodystyle otherwise only seen in the Saabs and Sterlings. The Stonieren englisch astronomer Ptolemy wrote about the possibility of planetary transits across the face of the Sun american football hannover his work Planetary Hypotheses. Retrieved April 3, Merkur d planet Planets of the Solar System Terrestrial planets Astronomical objects known since antiquity.