Ergebnis wales nordirland
Diese Liste enthält alle offiziellen, von der FIFA anerkannten Spiele der nordirischen Fußballnationalmannschaft der Männer. Die Spiele der Gesamtirischen Fußballnationalmannschaft werden von der FIFA Nordirland zugerechnet. , Wales Wales, , British Home Championship , H, Belfast. Juni In Nordirland befürwortet ebenfalls eine Mehrheit (55,8 Prozent), in der EU zu Im Gegensatz dazu stimmte der Süden - England und Wales. Juni Wales gegen Nordirland: EM jetzt live im Free-TV in der ARD . Ergebnis. Freundschaftsspiel. Wales - Nordirland.
Each council elects a Provost , or Convenor , to chair meetings of the council and to act as a figurehead for the area.
Local government in Wales consists of 22 unitary authorities. These include the cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, which are unitary authorities in their own right.
Local government in Northern Ireland has since been organised into 26 district councils, each elected by single transferable vote. Their powers are limited to services such as collecting waste, controlling dogs and maintaining parks and cemeteries.
The United Kingdom has sovereignty over seventeen territories which do not form part of the United Kingdom itself: The fourteen British Overseas Territories are: They are the last remaining remnants of the British Empire and a UK government white paper stated that: Britain has willingly granted independence where it has been requested; and we will continue to do so where this is an option.
The Crown dependencies are possessions of the Crown , as opposed to overseas territories of the UK. However, internationally, they are regarded as "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible".
The British dependencies use a varied assortment of currencies. These include the British pound, US dollar, New Zealand dollar, euro or their own currencies, which may be pegged to either.
The United Kingdom is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. Queen Elizabeth II is the monarch and head of state of the UK, as well as fifteen other independent countries.
These sixteen countries are sometimes referred to as " Commonwealth realms ". The monarch has "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn".
However, no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change. The UK has a parliamentary government based on the Westminster system that has been emulated around the world: The parliament of the United Kingdom meets in the Palace of Westminster and has two houses: All bills passed are given Royal Assent before becoming law.
Executive power is exercised by the prime minister and cabinet, all of whom are sworn into the Privy Council of the United Kingdom , and become Ministers of the Crown.
May is also the leader of the Conservative Party. For elections to the House of Commons, the UK is divided into constituencies ,  each electing a single member of parliament MP by simple plurality.
General elections are called by the monarch when the prime minister so advises. Prior to the Fixed-term Parliaments Act , the Parliament Acts and required that a new election must be called no later than five years after the previous general election.
Most of the remaining seats were won by parties that contest elections only in one part of the UK: Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own government or executive , led by a First Minister or, in the case of Northern Ireland, a diarchal First Minister and deputy First Minister , and a devolved unicameral legislature.
This situation has given rise to the so-called West Lothian question , which concerns the fact that members of parliament from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland can vote, sometimes decisively,  on matters that affect only England.
The Scottish Government and Parliament have wide-ranging powers over any matter that has not been specifically reserved to the UK Parliament, including education , healthcare , Scots law and local government.
The Executive is led by a diarchy representing unionist and nationalist members of the Assembly. The British and Irish governments co-operate on non-devolved matters affecting Northern Ireland through the British—Irish Intergovernmental Conference , which assumes the responsibilities of the Northern Ireland administration in the event of its non-operation.
The UK does not have a codified constitution and constitutional matters are not among the powers devolved to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland.
English law , Northern Ireland law and Scots law. Both English law, which applies in England and Wales , and Northern Ireland law are based on common-law principles.
The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil appeal cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the same jurisdiction, often having a persuasive effect in other jurisdictions.
Scots law is a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles. The chief courts are the Court of Session , for civil cases,  and the High Court of Justiciary , for criminal cases.
Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal. The prison population of England and Wales has increased to 86,, giving England and Wales the highest rate of incarceration in Western Europe at per , It is also a member state of the European Union in the process of withdrawal.
The Commander-in-Chief is the British monarch , to whom members of the forces swear an oath of allegiance. The British armed forces played a key role in establishing the British Empire as the dominant world power in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries.
By emerging victorious from conflicts, Britain has often been able to decisively influence world events. Since the end of the British Empire, the UK has remained a major military power.
Following the end of the Cold War , defence policy has a stated assumption that "the most demanding operations" will be undertaken as part of a coalition.
Setting aside the intervention in Sierra Leone in , the last occasion on which the British military fought alone was the Falklands War of According to various sources, including the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and the International Institute for Strategic Studies , the United Kingdom has the fourth- or fifth-highest military expenditure in the world.
Total defence spending amounts to 2. The UK has a partially regulated market economy. Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, subject to retaining enough Bank of England notes in reserve to cover their issue.
The Industrial Revolution started in the UK with an initial concentration on the textile industry,  followed by other heavy industries such as shipbuilding , coal mining and steelmaking.
Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy but accounted for only In , the UK produced around 1.
The UK is a major centre for engine manufacturing: Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft and it has more than 30, engines in service in the civil and defence sectors.
It is growing at a rate of 7. The UK retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry. It is also rich in a number of natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica and an abundance of arable land.
In the final quarter of , the UK economy officially entered recession for the first time since Since the s, UK economic inequality , like Canada, Australia and the United States, has grown faster than in other developed countries.
England and Scotland were leading centres of the Scientific Revolution from the 17th century. Major scientific discoveries from the 18th century include hydrogen by Henry Cavendish ;  from the 20th century penicillin by Alexander Fleming ,  and the structure of DNA , by Francis Crick and others.
Scientific research and development remains important in British universities, with many establishing science parks to facilitate production and co-operation with industry.
In Great Britain, the British Rail network was privatised between and , which was followed by a rapid rise in passenger numbers following years of decline, although the factors behind this are disputed.
Network Rail owns and manages most of the fixed assets tracks, signals etc. About 20 privately owned Train Operating Companies operate passenger trains, which carried 1.
In the year from October to September UK airports handled a total of In , the UK was the 13th-largest producer of natural gas in the world and the largest producer in the EU.
Coal production played a key role in the UK economy in the 19th and 20th centuries. In the mids, million tonnes of coal were produced annually, not falling below million tonnes until the early s.
During the s and s the industry was scaled back considerably. In , the UK produced All but one of the reactors will be retired by Unlike Germany and Japan, the UK intends to build a new generation of nuclear plants from about The total of all renewable electricity sources provided for The UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy , and wind power production is its fastest growing supply, in it generated 9.
Access to improved water supply and sanitation in the UK is universal. It is estimated that In England and Wales water and sewerage services are provided by 10 private regional water and sewerage companies and 13 mostly smaller private "water only" companies.
In Scotland water and sewerage services are provided by a single public company, Scottish Water. In Northern Ireland water and sewerage services are also provided by a single public entity, Northern Ireland Water.
A census is taken simultaneously in all parts of the UK every ten years. In mid and mid net long-term international migration contributed more to population growth.
In mid and mid natural change contributed the most to population growth. Greater Manchester Urban Area. West Yorkshire Urban Area. Historically, indigenous British people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there before the 12th century: Welsh people could be the oldest ethnic group in the UK.
The UK has a history of small-scale non-white immigration, with Liverpool having the oldest Black population in the country dating back to at least the s during the period of the African slave trade.
During this period it is estimated the Afro-Caribbean population of Great Britain was 10, to 15,  which later declined due to the abolition of slavery.
By this number had more than quadrupled to ,, just over 0. Since substantial immigration from Africa, the Caribbean and South Asia has been a legacy of ties forged by the British Empire.
Academics have argued that the ethnicity categories employed in British national statistics, which were first introduced in the census , involve confusion between the concepts of ethnicity and race.
Because of differences in the wording of the census forms used in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, data on the Other White group is not available for the UK as a whole, but in England and Wales this was the fastest growing group between the and censuses, increasing by 1.
Ethnic diversity varies significantly across the UK. In the UK census Four Celtic languages are spoken in the UK: Welsh , Irish , Scottish Gaelic and Cornish.
Scots , a language descended from early northern Middle English , has limited recognition alongside its regional variant, Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland, without specific commitments to protection and promotion.
It is compulsory for pupils to study a second language up to the age of 14 in England. All pupils in Wales are taught Welsh as a second language up to age 16, or are taught in Welsh.
Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in what is now the United Kingdom for over years. In the census Islam , Hinduism , Judaism , etc.
The Church of England is the established church in England. It is not subject to state control , and the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government " upon his or her accession.
The United Kingdom has experienced successive waves of migration. London held around half of this population, and other small communities existed in Manchester, Bradford and elsewhere.
The German immigrant community was the largest group until , when it became second to Russian Jews. After Russian Jews suffered bitter persecutions, and, out of some 2,, who left Russia by , around , settled permanently in Britain, overtaking the Germans to be the largest ethnic minority from outside the British Isles.
In the net increase was , Immigration is now contributing to a rising population  with arrivals and UK-born children of migrants accounting for about half of the population increase between and Over a quarter In , approximately , foreign nationals were naturalised as British citizens, the highest number since records began in This figure fell to around , in Between and , the average number of people granted British citizenship per year was , Emigration was an important feature of British society in the 19th century.
Between and around Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter, with each country having a separate education system.
Considering the four systems together, about 38 per cent of the United Kingdom population has a university or college degree , which is the highest percentage in Europe, and among the highest percentages in the world.
Whilst education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Education , the day-to-day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of local authorities.
Two of the top ten performing schools in terms of GCSE results in were state-run grammar schools. Since the establishment of Bedford College London , Girton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century , women also can obtain a university degree.
Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning , with day-to-day administration and funding of state schools the responsibility of Local Authorities.
Two non-departmental public bodies have key roles in Scottish education. The Scottish Qualifications Authority is responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees which are delivered at secondary schools, post-secondary colleges of further education and other centres.
The Welsh Government has responsibility for education in Wales. A significant number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or largely in the Welsh language ; lessons in Welsh are compulsory for all until the age of Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister of Education , although responsibility at a local level is administered by the Education Authority which is further sub-divided into five geographical areas.
Healthcare in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter and each country has its own system of private and publicly funded health care , together with alternative , holistic and complementary treatments.
Public healthcare is provided to all UK permanent residents and is mostly free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.
The World Health Organization , in , ranked the provision of healthcare in the United Kingdom as fifteenth best in Europe and eighteenth in the world.
However, political and operational responsibility for healthcare lies with four national executives ; healthcare in England is the responsibility of the UK Government; healthcare in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Northern Ireland Executive ; healthcare in Scotland is the responsibility of the Scottish Government ; and healthcare in Wales is the responsibility of the Welsh Government.
Each National Health Service has different policies and priorities, resulting in contrasts. The culture of the United Kingdom has been influenced by many factors including: The substantial cultural influence of the United Kingdom has led it to be described as a "cultural superpower".
Most British literature is in the English language. In , some , books were published in the United Kingdom and in it was the largest publisher of books in the world.
The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest dramatist of all time,    and his contemporaries Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson have also been held in continuous high esteem.
Somerset Maugham and Graham Greene ; [ citation needed ] the crime writer Agatha Christie the best-selling novelist of all time ;  Ian Fleming the creator of James Bond ; the poets T.
Rowling ; the graphic novelists Alan Moore and Neil Gaiman. Gunn contributed to the Scottish Renaissance. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest European poets of his age.
Daniel Owen is credited as the first Welsh-language novelist, publishing Rhys Lewis in The best-known of the Anglo-Welsh poets are both Thomases. Dylan Thomas became famous on both sides of the Atlantic in the midth century.
He is remembered for his poetry—his " Do not go gentle into that good night ; Rage, rage against the dying of the light" is one of the most quoted couplets of English language verse—and for his "play for voices", Under Milk Wood.
The influential Church in Wales "poet-priest" and Welsh nationalist R. Thomas was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in Authors of other nationalities, particularly from Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland and the United States, have lived and worked in the UK.
Various styles of music are popular in the UK from the indigenous folk music of England , Wales , Scotland and Northern Ireland to heavy metal. Sir Harrison Birtwistle is one of the foremost living composers.
George Frideric Handel became a naturalised British citizen and wrote the British coronation anthem, while some of his best works, such as Messiah , were written in the English language.
The Beatles have international sales of over one billion units and are the biggest-selling and most influential band in the history of popular music.
A number of UK cities are known for their music. Acts from Liverpool have had 54 UK chart number one hit singles, more per capita than any other city worldwide.
As of , pop remains the most popular music genre in the UK with The history of British visual art forms part of western art history. Major British artists include: During the late s and s the Saatchi Gallery in London helped to bring to public attention a group of multi-genre artists who would become known as the " Young British Artists ": The Royal Academy in London is a key organisation for the promotion of the visual arts in the United Kingdom.
Major schools of art in the UK include: The Courtauld Institute of Art is a leading centre for the teaching of the history of art.
The United Kingdom has had a considerable influence on the history of the cinema. The British directors Alfred Hitchcock , whose film Vertigo is considered by some critics as the best film of all time ,  and David Lean are among the most critically acclaimed of all-time.
Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry has often been characterised by a debate about its identity and the level of American and European influence.
British cuisine developed from various influences reflective of its land, settlements, arrivals of new settlers and immigrants, trade and colonialism.
Celtic agriculture and animal breeding produced a wide variety of foodstuffs for indigenous Celts and Britons. Anglo-Saxon England developed meat and savoury herb stewing techniques before the practice became common in Europe.
The Norman conquest introduced exotic spices into England in the Middle Ages. British cuisine has absorbed the cultural influence of those who have settled in Britain , producing many hybrid dishes, such as the Anglo-Indian chicken tikka masala.
Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Cardiff, are important centres of newspaper and broadcasting production in Scotland and Wales respectively.
In , it was estimated that individuals viewed a mean of 3. In that year the main BBC public service broadcasting channels accounted for an estimated Two Britons are also notable for a theory of moral philosophy utilitarianism , first used by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill in his short work Utilitarianism.
Major sports, including association football, tennis , rugby union , rugby league , golf , boxing , netball , rowing and cricket , originated or were substantially developed in the UK and the states that preceded it.
With the rules and codes of many modern sports invented and codified in late 19th century Victorian Britain , in , the President of the IOC, Jacques Rogge , stated; "This great, sports-loving country is widely recognised as the birthplace of modern sport.
It was here that the concepts of sportsmanship and fair play were first codified into clear rules and regulations. It was here that sport was included as an educational tool in the school curriculum".
In most international competitions, separate teams represent England, Scotland and Wales. Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland usually field a single team representing all of Ireland, with notable exceptions being association football and the Commonwealth Games.
There are some sports in which a single team represents the whole of United Kingdom, including the Olympics, where the UK is represented by the Great Britain team.
The , and Summer Olympics were held in London, making it the first city to host the games three times. Britain has participated in every modern Olympic Games to date and is third in the medal count.
A poll found that football is the most popular sport in the United Kingdom. The English top division, the Premier League , is the most watched football league in the world.
In , rugby union was ranked the second most popular sport in the UK. Sport governing bodies in England , Scotland , Wales and Ireland organise and regulate the game separately.
Cricket was invented in England, and its laws were established by Marylebone Cricket Club in Team members are drawn from the main county sides, and include both English and Welsh players.
Cricket is distinct from football and rugby where Wales and England field separate national teams, although Wales had fielded its own team in the past.
Irish and Scottish players have played for England because neither Scotland nor Ireland have Test status and have only recently started to play in One Day Internationals and Ireland is yet to play their first test match.
There is a professional league championship in which clubs representing 17 English counties and 1 Welsh county compete. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the s, before spreading around the world.
The UK has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing. The UK is closely associated with motorsport. The premier national auto racing event is the British Touring Car Championship.
Golf is the sixth most popular sport, by participation, in the UK. Rugby league originated in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire in and is generally played in Northern England.
Super League is the highest level of professional rugby league in the UK and Europe. Wales is not represented in the Union Flag, as Wales had been conquered and annexed to England prior to the formation of the United Kingdom.
The possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Wales has not been completely ruled out. Britannia is a national personification of the United Kingdom, originating from Roman Britain.
Sometimes she is depicted as riding on the back of a lion. A second, less used, personification of the nation is the character John Bull. United Kingdom — Wikipedia book.
Great Britain is made up of England, Scotland and Wales. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. It is not to be confused with Great Britain , its largest island whose name is also loosely applied to the whole country.
For other uses of "UK", see UK disambiguation. For other uses of "United Kingdom", see United Kingdom disambiguation. Royal coat of arms [note 1].
Show map of Europe. England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales. Britain place name and Terminology of the British Isles.
History of the British Isles. History of the United Kingdom. Acts of Union Political history of the United Kingdom —present and Social history of the United Kingdom —present.
Geography of the United Kingdom. Skye is one of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides and part of the Scottish Highlands. Climate of the United Kingdom.
The four countries of the United Kingdom. Administrative geography of the United Kingdom. Politics of the United Kingdom. Queen Elizabeth II , Monarch since Theresa May , Prime Minister since Government of the United Kingdom.
Law of the United Kingdom. Foreign relations of the United Kingdom. Economy of the United Kingdom. Science and technology in the United Kingdom.
Transport in the United Kingdom. Energy in the United Kingdom. Water supply and sanitation in the United Kingdom. Demography of the United Kingdom.
Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Languages of the United Kingdom. Religion in the United Kingdom. Modern immigration to the United Kingdom.
Foreign-born population of the United Kingdom. Education in the United Kingdom. Education in Northern Ireland.
Healthcare in the United Kingdom. Culture of the United Kingdom. Music of the United Kingdom. Rock music in the United Kingdom.
Art of the United Kingdom. Cinema of the United Kingdom. Media of the United Kingdom. Sport in the United Kingdom. In the English tradition, such laws are not necessary; proclamation and usage are sufficient to make it the national anthem.
The words Queen, she, her , used at present in the reign of Elizabeth II , are replaced by King, he, him when the monarch is male. Gibraltar and the British Indian Ocean Territory.
When it took effect one year later, it established the Irish Free State as a separate dominion within the Commonwealth.
Official web site of the British Royal Family. Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 12 December UK — Content design: Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 13 October Census reveals a picture of Britain today".
Established by the Northern Ireland Act as part of the Good Friday Agreement , the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government.
Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, and the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments".
However, a significant minority, mostly Catholics , were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule.
For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland , David Trimble , called a "cold house" for Catholics.
In the late s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, and chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles , which claimed over 3, lives and caused over 50, casualties.
Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles,  its economy has grown significantly since the late s.
The initial growth came from the " peace dividend " and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism, investment and business from around the world.
Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at Some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish e. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century.
A rebellion in by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England, Scotland and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland — toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland.
In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants both Anglican and Presbyterian.
The intention of the laws was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community.
In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks.
A rebellion in led by the cross-community Belfast-based Society of the United Irishmen and inspired by the French Revolution sought to break the constitutional ties between Ireland and Britain and unite Irish people of all religions.
Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws and to prevent the spread of French-style republicanism to Ireland , the government of the Kingdom of Great Britain pushed for the two kingdoms to be merged.
The new state, formed in , the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , was governed from a single government and parliament based in London.
Some , people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies between and During the 19th century, legal reforms started in the late 18th century continued to remove statutory discrimination against Catholics, and progressive programmes enabled tenant farmers to buy land from landlords.
By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, known as Home Rule , was regarded as highly likely. In , after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords , Home Rule became a near-certainty.
A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act , which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned.
In response, opponents to Home Rule, from Conservative and Unionist Party leaders such as Bonar Law and Dublin-based barrister Sir Edward Carson to militant working class unionists in Ireland, threatened the use of violence.
In , they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers UVF , a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule.
Most of the remaining 26 counties which later became the Republic of Ireland were overwhelmingly majority-nationalist. During the Home Rule Crisis the possibility was discussed of a "temporary" partition of these six counties from the rest of Ireland.
However, its implementation was suspended before it came into effect because of the outbreak of the First World War , and the Amending Bill to partition Ireland was abandoned.
The war was expected to last only a few weeks but in fact, lasted four years. By the end of the war during which the Easter Rising had taken place , the Act was seen as unimplementable.
Public opinion among nationalists had shifted during the war from a demand for home rule to one for full independence. Straddling these two areas would be a shared Lord Lieutenant of Ireland who would appoint both governments and a Council of Ireland , which Lloyd George believed would evolve into an all-Ireland parliament.
Events overtook the government. Under the terms of the treaty, Northern Ireland would become part of the Free State unless the government opted out by presenting an address to the king, although in practice partition remained in place.
As expected, the Houses of the Parliament of Northern Ireland resolved on 7 December the day after the establishment of the Irish Free State to exercise its right to opt out of the Free State by making an address to the King.
Shortly afterwards, the Boundary Commission was established to decide on the territorial boundaries between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland.
Owing to the outbreak of civil war in the Free State , the work of the commission was delayed until Leaders in Dublin expected a substantial reduction in the territory of Northern Ireland, with nationalist areas moving to the Free State.
The Ireland Act gave the first legal guarantee that the region would not cease to be part of the United Kingdom without the consent of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.
The Troubles, which started in the late s, consisted of about thirty years of recurring acts of intense violence during which 3, people were killed  with over 50, casualties.
The franchise for local government elections included only rate-payers and their spouses, and so excluded over a quarter of the electorate.
While the majority of disenfranchised electors were Protestant, but Catholics were over-represented since they were poorer and had more adults still living in the family home.
The state security forces — the British Army and the police the Royal Ulster Constabulary — were also involved in the violence.
Republicans regarded the state forces as combatants in the conflict, pointing to the collusion between the state forces and the loyalist paramilitaries as proof of this.
The "Ballast" investigation by the Police Ombudsman has confirmed that British forces, and in particular the RUC, did collude with loyalist paramilitaries, were involved in murder, and did obstruct the course of justice when such claims had been investigated,  although the extent to which such collusion occurred is still hotly disputed.
As a consequence of the worsening security situation, autonomous regional government for Northern Ireland was suspended in Alongside the violence, there was a political deadlock between the major political parties in Northern Ireland, including those who condemned violence, over the future status of Northern Ireland and the form of government there should be within Northern Ireland.
In , Northern Ireland held a referendum to determine if it should remain in the United Kingdom, or be part of a united Ireland.
The vote went heavily in favour The Troubles were brought to an uneasy end by a peace process which included the declaration of ceasefires by most paramilitary organisations and the complete decommissioning of their weapons, the reform of the police, and the corresponding withdrawal of army troops from the streets and from sensitive border areas such as South Armagh and Fermanagh , as agreed by the signatories to the Belfast Agreement commonly known as the " Good Friday Agreement ".
This reiterated the long-held British position, which had never before been fully acknowledged by successive Irish governments, that Northern Ireland will remain within the United Kingdom until a majority of voters in Northern Ireland decides otherwise.
The Constitution of Ireland was amended in to remove a claim of the "Irish nation" to sovereignty over the entire island in Article 2.
The new Articles 2 and 3 , added to the Constitution to replace the earlier articles, implicitly acknowledge that the status of Northern Ireland, and its relationships within the rest of the United Kingdom and with the Republic of Ireland, would only be changed with the agreement of a majority of voters in each jurisdiction.
This aspect was also central to the Belfast Agreement which was signed in and ratified by referendums held simultaneously in both Northern Ireland and the Republic.
At the same time, the British Government recognised for the first time, as part of the prospective, the so-called "Irish dimension": It established a devolved power-sharing government within Northern Ireland, which must consist of both unionist and nationalist parties.
On 28 July , the Provisional IRA declared an end to its campaign and has since decommissioned what is thought to be all of its arsenal.
This final act of decommissioning was performed in accordance with the Belfast Agreement of and under the watch of the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning and two external church witnesses.
Many unionists, however, remain sceptical. The International Commission later confirmed that the main loyalist paramilitary groups, the UDA, UVF and the Red Hand Commando, had decommissioned what is thought to be all of their arsenals, witnessed by a former archbishop and a former top civil servant.
Politicians elected to the Assembly at the Assembly election were called together on 15 May under the Northern Ireland Act  for the purpose of electing a First Minister and deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland and choosing the members of an Executive before 25 November as a preliminary step to the restoration of devolved government.
The main political divide in Northern Ireland is between unionists, who wish to see Northern Ireland continue as part of the United Kingdom, and nationalists, who wish to see Northern Ireland unified with the Republic of Ireland, independent from the United Kingdom.
These two opposing views are linked to deeper cultural divisions. Unionists are predominantly Ulster Protestant , descendants of mainly Scottish , English, and Huguenot settlers as well as Gaels who converted to one of the Protestant denominations.
Nationalists are overwhelmingly Catholic and descend from the population predating the settlement, with a minority from the Scottish Highlands as well as some converts from Protestantism.
Discrimination against nationalists under the Stormont government — gave rise to the civil rights movement in the s.
While some unionists argue that discrimination was not just due to religious or political bigotry, but also the result of more complex socio-economic, socio-political and geographical factors,  its existence, and the manner in which nationalist anger at it was handled, were a major contributing factor to the Troubles.
The political unrest went through its most violent phase between and Most of the population of Northern Ireland are at least nominally Christian, mostly Roman Catholic and Protestant denominations.
For the most part, Protestants feel a strong connection with Great Britain and wish for Northern Ireland to remain part of the United Kingdom. Many Catholics however, generally aspire to a United Ireland or are less certain about how to solve the constitutional question.
Protestants have a slight majority in Northern Ireland, according to the latest Northern Ireland Census. The make-up of the Northern Ireland Assembly reflects the appeals of the various parties within the population.
Of the Members of the Legislative Assembly MLAs , 56 are unionists and 40 are nationalists the remaining 12 are classified as "other". Since , Northern Ireland has had devolved government within the United Kingdom, presided over by the Northern Ireland Assembly and a cross-community government the Northern Ireland Executive.
Reserved matters comprise listed policy areas such as civil aviation , units of measurement , and human genetics that Parliament may devolve to the Assembly some time in the future.
Excepted matters such as international relations , taxation and elections are never expected to be considered for devolution.
On all other governmental matters, the Executive together with the member Assembly may legislate for and govern Northern Ireland.
Elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly are by single transferable vote with five Members of the Legislative Assembly MLAs elected from each of 18 parliamentary constituencies.
In addition, eighteen representatives Members of Parliament, MPs are elected to the lower house of the UK parliament from the same constituencies using the first-past-the-post system.
However, not all of those elected take their seats. In addition, the upper house of the UK parliament, the House of Lords , currently has some 25 appointed members from Northern Ireland.
Northern Ireland itself forms a single constituency for elections to the European Parliament. Northern Ireland is a distinct legal jurisdiction , separate from the two other jurisdictions in the United Kingdom England and Wales , and Scotland.
Northern Ireland law developed from Irish law that existed before the partition of Ireland in Northern Ireland is a common law jurisdiction and its common law is similar to that in England and Wales.
However, there are important differences in law and procedure between Northern Ireland and England and Wales. There is no generally accepted term to describe what Northern Ireland is: There is also no uniform or guiding way to refer to Northern Ireland amongst the agencies of the UK government.
Unlike England, Scotland and Wales, Northern Ireland has no history of being an independent country or of being a nation in its own right.
Many commentators prefer to use the term "province", although that is also not without problems. It can arouse irritation, particularly among nationalists, for whom the title province is properly reserved for the traditional province of Ulster, of which Northern Ireland comprises six out of nine counties.
Some authors have described the meaning of this term as being equivocal: Some authors choose this word but note that it is "unsatisfactory".
Many people inside and outside Northern Ireland use other names for Northern Ireland, depending on their point of view.
Disagreement on names, and the reading of political symbolism into the use or non-use of a word, also attaches itself to some urban centres.
Choice of language and nomenclature in Northern Ireland often reveals the cultural, ethnic and religious identity of the speaker. Those who do not belong to any group but lean towards one side often tend to use the language of that group.
Although some news bulletins since the s have opted to avoid all contentious terms and use the official name, Northern Ireland, the term "the North" remains commonly used by broadcast media in the Republic.
Northern Ireland was covered by an ice sheet for most of the last ice age and on numerous previous occasions, the legacy of which can be seen in the extensive coverage of drumlins in Counties Fermanagh, Armagh, Antrim and particularly Down.
The largest island of Northern Ireland is Rathlin , off the north Antrim coast. There are substantial uplands in the Sperrin Mountains an extension of the Caledonian mountain belt with extensive gold deposits, granite Mourne Mountains and basalt Antrim Plateau , as well as smaller ranges in South Armagh and along the Fermanagh—Tyrone border.
The Lower and Upper River Bann , River Foyle and River Blackwater form extensive fertile lowlands, with excellent arable land also found in North and East Down, although much of the hill country is marginal and suitable largely for animal husbandry.
The valley of the River Lagan is dominated by Belfast, whose metropolitan area includes over a third of the population of Northern Ireland, with heavy urbanisation and industrialisation along the Lagan Valley and both shores of Belfast Lough.
The whole of Northern Ireland has a temperate maritime climate , rather wetter in the west than the east, although cloud cover is persistent across the region.
The weather is unpredictable at all times of the year, and although the seasons are distinct, they are considerably less pronounced than in interior Europe or the eastern seaboard of North America.
Average daytime maximums in Belfast are 6. The highest maximum temperature recorded was Northern Ireland is the least forested part of the United Kingdom and Ireland, and one of the least forested parts of Europe.
Northern Ireland consists of six historic counties: These counties are no longer used for local government purposes; instead, there are eleven districts of Northern Ireland which have different geographical extents.
These were created in , replacing the twenty-six districts which previously existed. Although counties are no longer used for local governmental purposes, they remain a popular means of describing where places are.
The Gaelic Athletic Association still uses the counties as its primary means of organisation and fields representative teams of each GAA county.
The original system of car registration numbers largely based on counties still remains in use. In , the telephone numbering system was restructured into an 8 digit scheme with except for Belfast the first digit approximately reflecting the county.
Britische Rentner sehen rot. Neoliberale geht der Wandel jedoch viel zu langsam. London will die bereits von der EU zugesprochenen Gelder bis weiter garantieren.
Was danach passiert, ist unklar. Bei der EU liegt nun die Beweislast, dass sie es besser kann. Unterwegs in einer Problemzone, in: Der Publizist David Goodhart sieht das anders, obwohl er eigentlich aus dem linksliberalen Milieu stammt, in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung v.
In seinem neuen Buch The Road to Somewhere beschreibt er die Differenzen zwischen Globalisierungsgewinnern "anywheres" und -verlierern "somewheres": Ihr Unbehagen richtet sich Auf Einladung der Queen.
Theresa May hat den Regierungsauftrag erhalten. Nun muss sie zeigen, dass ihre Mehrheit steht, in: Diesen Sieg verdankt sie vor allem den Studenten der University of Kent, die sich an ihrem Studienort zur Wahl meldeten.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung v. Alter Klassenhass erhebt sein Haupt. Der soziale Graben in Kensington and Chelsea ist markant. Unser Korrespondent packt seine Kisten.
Geriet Nordkensington zuletzt wegen des Hochhausinfernos in die Schlagzeilen, ist das Viertel auch kosmopolitische Keimzelle der britischen Metropole.
Auf der anderen Seite die Armut, wie sie sich am Sozialbau zeigt",. Das Telefon steht nicht mehr still.
Viele alte Menschen sind chronisch einsam. General Lifestyle Survey ". Zudem ist Einsamkeit nicht identisch mit dem Alleinhaushalten.
Auch dieser Aspekt kommt in dem Artikel nicht vor.
wales nordirland ergebnis - apologise, butSollten Sie es also zum Achtelfinale Wales gegen Nordirland nicht vor den Fernseher oder Live-Stream schaffen, schauen Sie doch einfach bei uns vorbei! Auch wenn die Menschen so unterschiedlich abgestimmt hätten: Er wollte seine Partei, die konservativen Tories, eigentlich mit dem Referendum einen. Das Referendumsergebnis offenbart ein tief gespaltenes Land: Wales werde bald "Westminster vollständig ausgeliefert" sein - dem wolle die Partei "robust" entgegenwirken. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Stürmische Begeisterung sieht wohl anders aus. Letztes Spiel unter Dave Clements. Williams, Davies, Taylor — Ramsey, Ledley
Resultatet var en nedgangsperiode for landets industri op gennem tallet. Service-sektoren er domineret af finans industrien , specielt inden for bank og forsikring.
Den britiske industri har haft en nedtur siden 2. Storbritannien har stadig store reserver af kul , gas og olie. Der findes ingen bjergtoppe over 1.
Gennem Eurotunnelen er der landforbindelse til Frankrig. Storbritannien har op mod 1. I kom normannerne. Det dominerende sprog i Storbritannien er engelsk , som er et vestgermansk sprog.
Der er betydelige dialektforskelle inden for det engelske sprog. Disse deles gerne i de overordnede grupper hibernoengelsk Nordirland , skotsk engelsk, walisisk engelsk og "Englandsengelsk".
Dertil kommer flere keltiske sprog: I anden del af det Historisk var alle de fire nationer inddelt i grevskaber. England er inddelt i ni regioner , der fungerer som et niveau mellem stat og grevskab.
Som i andre engelsktalende lande er der to forskellige typer bystatus , city og town. Denne status gives i kongelig charter. Storbritannien er en aktiv deltager i NATO og andre koalitioner.
Det totale antal soldater er omkring Sidst de britiske styrker gik alene i krig mod en fjende, var i Falklandskrigen i Storbritannien har nogle af verdens ledende og mest kendte universiteter, deriblandt University of Cambridge , University of Oxford og University of London.
Storbritannien var sammen med USA et vigtig sted for udviklingen af rock. Det samme gjaldt i en periode heavy metal , med bl.
Da engelsk er et internationalt sprog, er engelske medier kendt over store dele af verden. Blandt private fjernsynskanaler er ITV , Channel 4 og five.
Britisk radio domineres af BBC Radio , som har 10 nationale og 40 regionale kanaler. Flere store sportsgrene har sit ophav i Storbritannien, blandt andet fodbold , rugby , golf , cricket , tennis , boksning , bandy og landhockey.
Storbritannien konkurrerer ikke som et land i internationale turneringer; i stedet stiller de fire nationer med hvert sit hold. Af den grund har Storbritannien aldrig deltaget ved fodbold under de olympiske lege , men under sommer-OL , som holdes i London , blev der sammensat et britisk hold specielt til denne anledning.
However, because in the past Catholic families tended to send their deaf children to schools in Dublin [ citation needed ] where Irish Sign Language ISL is commonly used, ISL is still common among many older deaf people from Catholic families.
Northern Ireland shares both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom. Those of Catholic background tend to identity more with Irish culture, and those of Protestant background more with British culture.
This has caused the two communities to become pillarised. Parades are a prominent feature of Northern Ireland society,  more so than in the rest of Ireland or in Britain.
Most are held by Protestant fraternities such as the Orange Order , and Ulster loyalist marching bands. Each summer, during the "marching season", these groups have hundreds of parades, deck streets with British flags , bunting and specially-made arches, and light large towering bonfires.
There is often tension when these activities take place near Catholic neighbourhoods, which sometimes leads to violence.
Since the end of the Troubles, Northern Ireland has witnessed rising numbers of tourists. Attractions include cultural festivals, musical and artistic traditions, countryside and geographical sites of interest, public houses , welcoming hospitality and sports especially golf and fishing.
Since public houses have been allowed to open on Sundays, despite some opposition. The Ulster Cycle is a large body of prose and verse centring on the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster.
This is one of the four major cycles of Irish mythology. The cycle centres on the reign of Conchobar mac Nessa , who is said to have been king of Ulster around the 1st century.
Northern Ireland comprises a patchwork of communities whose national loyalties are represented in some areas by flags flown from flagpoles or lamp posts.
The Union Jack and the former Northern Ireland flag are flown in many loyalist areas, and the Tricolour, adopted by republicans as the flag of Ireland in ,  is flown in some republican areas.
The official flag is that of the state having sovereignty over the territory, i. Since , it has had no official status. The Union Flag and the Ulster Banner are used exclusively by unionists.
This red saltire on a white field was used to represent Ireland in the flag of the United Kingdom. It is still used by some British army regiments.
Foreign flags are also found, such as the Palestinian flags in some nationalist areas and Israeli flags in some unionist areas. At the Commonwealth Games and some other sporting events, the Northern Ireland team uses the Ulster Banner as its flag—notwithstanding its lack of official status—and the Londonderry Air usually set to lyrics as Danny Boy , which also has no official status, as its national anthem.
The Irish national anthem is also played at Dublin home matches, being the anthem of the host country. Northern Irish murals have become well-known features of Northern Ireland, depicting past and present events and documenting peace and cultural diversity.
Almost 2, murals have been documented in Northern Ireland since the s. In Northern Ireland, sport is popular and important in the lives of many people.
Sports tend to be organised on an all-Ireland basis, with a single team for the whole island. However, many players from Northern Ireland compete with clubs in England and Scotland.
NIFL clubs are semi-professional or Intermediate. No clubs have ever reached the group stage. The six counties of Northern Ireland are among the nine governed by the Ulster branch of the Irish Rugby Football Union , the governing body of rugby union in Ireland.
Ulster is one of the four professional provincial teams in Ireland and competes in the Pro14 and European Cup. It won the European Cup in They are currently able to compete in Test cricket, the highest level of competitive cricket in the international arena and they are one of the twelve full-member countries under the ICC.
Gaelic games include Gaelic football , hurling and camogie , handball and rounders. Of the four, football is the most popular in Northern Ireland.
Players play for local clubs with the best being selected for their county teams. Northern Ireland has contributed more major champions in the modern era than any other European country, with three in the space of just 14 months from the US Open in to The Open Championship in Northern Ireland has produced two world snooker champions; Alex Higgins , who won the title in and , and Dennis Taylor , who won in The highest-ranked Northern Ireland professional on the world circuit presently is Mark Allen from Antrim.
The sport is governed locally by the Northern Ireland Billiards and Snooker Association who run regular ranking tournaments and competitions.
Although Northern Ireland lacks an international automobile racecourse, two Northern Irish drivers have finished inside the top two of Formula One , with John Watson achieving the feat in and Eddie Irvine doing the same in The wrestling promotion features championships, former WWE superstars and local independent wrestlers.
Unlike most areas of the United Kingdom, in the last year of primary school, many children sit entrance examinations for grammar schools. Integrated schools , which attempt to ensure a balance in enrolment between pupils of Protestant, Roman Catholic and other faiths or none , are becoming increasingly popular, although Northern Ireland still has a primarily de facto religiously segregated education system.
In the primary school sector, forty schools 8. The state-owned Channel 4 and the privately owned Channel 5 also broadcast in Northern Ireland.
Access is available to satellite and cable services. Besides the UK and Irish national newspapers, there are three main regional newspapers published in Northern Ireland.
Northern Ireland uses the same telecommunications and postal services as the rest of the United Kingdom at standard domestic rates and there are no mobile roaming charges between Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Both the national flag and the national anthem of present-day Ireland drive origins directly from the Rising.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of the United Kingdom lying in the north-east of the island of Ireland, created For the electoral constituency, see Northern Ireland European Parliament constituency.
Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. The official flag of Northern Ireland is the Union Jack de jure. However, the Ulster Banner was used by the Parliament of Northern Ireland from to and is still used by some organisations and entities, and is seen as the unofficial flag of the region by unionists but its use is controversial.
See Flag of Northern Ireland for more. English serves as the de facto language of government and diplomacy and has been established through precedent.
The code is within the UK and from the Republic of Ireland where it is treated as a domestic call. History of Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland peace process.
Politics of Northern Ireland. Elections in Northern Ireland and Northern Ireland law. Alternative names for Northern Ireland.
Geography of Ireland and Geography of the United Kingdom. Counties of Northern Ireland. Transport in Northern Ireland. British nationality law and Irish nationality law.
Languages of Northern Ireland. Irish language in Northern Ireland and Ulster Irish. Culture of Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland flags issue.
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