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    As of [update] , the largest national group was from Turkey 2,, , followed by Poland 1,, , Russia 1,, , and Italy , Upon its establishment in , Germany was about two-thirds Protestant [f] and one-third Roman Catholic , with a notable Jewish minority.

    Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions. Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust.

    Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following , with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies.

    It continues to diversify after the German reunification in , with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.

    Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country. According to the German Census , Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming Other religions accounted for 2.

    According to the most recent data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively Islam is the second largest religion in the country.

    All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50, adherents each. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.

    To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages , and the extinct East Germanic languages , to an even lesser extent.

    Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects , traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon , phonology , and syntax.

    German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union , with around million native speakers. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish , Kurdish , Polish , the Balkan languages , and Russian.

    Germans are typically multilingual: The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with institutes.

    It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.

    Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.

    Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.

    It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.

    However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.

    Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.

    In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.

    A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.

    Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" , [] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.

    Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.

    In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.

    Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

    Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.

    German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter.

    German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic. Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.

    Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.

    Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.

    Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.

    The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.

    Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e.

    Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.

    German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

    The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.

    German philosophy is historically significant: The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world. German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film.

    The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.

    Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e.

    International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular. German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe.

    Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts. Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions , [] the national alcoholic drink is beer.

    The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.

    Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually. With more than 6.

    Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.

    Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.

    Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].

    He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.

    Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

    German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.

    Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.

    Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation.

    For the country from to , see West Germany. Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. Show map of Europe.

    Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm. East Francia and Holy Roman Empire. Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.

    Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.

    Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical. Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic.

    German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.

    Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.

    There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 8 March Statistisches Bundesamt Destatis , Retrieved 8 June Evangelical Church of Germany.

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    Archived PDF from the original on 22 March Retrieved 14 September Zippelius, Reinhold []. The Lost German East. Archived from the original on 1 December Archived from the original on 11 September Archived from the original on 16 September P 27 August Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 27 August Archived from the original on 8 February Archived from the original on 3 September Retrieved 25 May Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 31 January Archived from the original on 4 January Retrieved 14 May Unesco memory of the World.

    Archived from the original on 11 October New York University Press. A Concise History of Germany. Historical Dictionary of Austria.

    Volume 70 2nd ed. Archived from the original on 16 May The Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. In Bowman, Alan K.

    The Cambridge Ancient History: X, The Augustan Empire, 43 B. Volume 10 2nd ed. Archived from the original on 23 December The crisis of empire, A.

    The Cambridge Ancient History. The Roman Empire and its Germanic Peoples. Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI.

    The Great Famine — and the Black Death — Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 19 March The printing press as an agent of change. Cambridge University Press, pp.

    The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap. A History of Eastern Europe: Archived from the original on 24 March Retrieved 26 March The Guardian News and Media Limited.

    Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 11 June Archived from the original on 8 October Retrieved 25 March A Reassessment after 75 Years.

    Publications of the German Historical Institute. In Boemeke, Manfred F. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 4 July A Nation Forged and Renewed.

    Roots of the Holocaust". Retrieved 28 September Archived from the original on 10 May Archived from the original on 30 April The Third Reich in Power.

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    Europe-Asia Studies 46 4: Forced Labour under Third Reich. The End; Germany — In Crafts, Nicholas; Toniolo, Gianni. Economic Growth in Europe Since Wirtschaft in beiden deutschen Staaten" [Economy in both German states].

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    Archived from the original PDF on 20 May Retrieved 14 June After signature by all 27 Heads of State and governments, the Treaty will travel back to Brussels, where it will be officially sealed with the seals of the 27 Member States, on the 18th of December.

    Then, it will be sent to Rome, the Italian government being the depository of the Treaties. Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 7 May Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

    Archived PDF from the original on 3 April Retrieved 21 February Archived from the original on 13 May Retrieved 15 December Migration to Europe explained in seven charts".

    Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 30 August Archived from the original on 5 February Retrieved 8 May Archived PDF from the original on 2 July Retrieved 14 April Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe: The Cornflower was once the floral emblem of Germany hence the German common name Kaiserblume.

    Zoos and Aquariums of America. Archived from the original on 7 October Retrieved 16 April Archived PDF from the original on 12 July Retrieved 11 April Archived PDF from the original on 19 June Retrieved 26 January Archived from the original on 24 January The World Street Journal.

    Archived from the original on 13 March Archived from the original on 2 February Archived from the original on 13 December Archived from the original on 1 May Criminal Justice in Germany.

    Archived from the original on 22 September Journal of Legal Studies. Archived from the original on 18 October Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 6 May Landtag state assembly of North Rhine-Westphalia.

    Archived from the original on 17 January Retrieved 17 July Quartal " XLS in German. Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 3 August Archived from the original on 5 November Retrieved 6 July German Federal Foreign Office.

    Archived from the original on 29 June Archived from the original on 25 June Retrieved 18 July Archived from the original on 11 May UN Committee on Contributions.

    Archived from the original on 23 June Archived from the original on 27 March Answers an ocean apart". Retrieved 28 March Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    Archived from the original on 10 March Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original PDF on 11 May Retrieved 7 April Archived from the original on 5 July Retrieved 20 January Military personnel of the Bundeswehr] in German.

    Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 22 August Die Bundeswehr der Zukunft" in German. Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 5 June Archived PDF from the original on 10 October Retrieved 6 October Archived PDF from the original on 28 May Archived from the original on 17 September Archived PDF from the original on 20 May Retrieved 10 November World Development Indicators database.

    Archived PDF from the original on 12 September Retrieved 1 January Archived PDF from the original on 9 February Retrieved 5 October Euro area unemployment rate at Archived from the original on 10 December Retrieved 12 December Archived from the original on 4 November Archived from the original on 2 May Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on 15 March Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 29 March Archived from the original PDF on 23 March Retrieved 15 March Retrieved 7 July Archived from the original on 9 August Archived from the original PDF on 10 March Air Broker Center International.

    Archived from the original on 27 April Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 19 April The World Bank Group. Retrieved 18 April Archived PDF from the original on 15 March Retrieved 10 March Archived from the original on 19 March The Times of India.

    Archived from the original on 17 November Retrieved 9 November Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Archived from the original on 8 May Archived PDF from the original on 21 September Federal Ministry of Education and Research.

    Archived from the original PDF on 14 May Archived from the original on 4 April Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 26 October Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 1 October The New Penguin History of the World.

    Retrieved 17 April Centennial of Flight Commission. Archived from the original on 25 April Archived from the original on 9 December Archived from the original on 21 June Archived from the original PDF on 1 January Retrieved 26 June Archived from the original PDF on 14 February Archived from the original PDF on 3 December Retrieved 26 November Landschaftsmuseum Westerwald , Hachenburg, Ausstellung vom In order to endorse its republican and liberal tradition, the song was chosen as the national anthem of Germany in , during the Weimar Republic.

    West Germany adopted the " Deutschlandlied " as its official national anthem in for similar reasons, with only the third stanza sung on official occasions.

    Upon German reunification in , only the third stanza was confirmed as the national anthem. The line "Germany, Germany above all" meant that the most important goal of 19th-century German liberal revolutionaries should be a unified Germany which would overcome loyalties to the local kingdoms, principalities, duchies and palatines Kleinstaaterei of then-fragmented Germany.

    It has been conjectured that Haydn took the first four bars of the melody from a Croatian folk song. For further discussion see Haydn and folk music.

    Haydn later used the hymn as the basis for the second movement poco adagio cantabile of his Opus 76 No. In addition, with the Carlsbad Decrees of , Austrian Chancellor Klemens von Metternich and his secret police enforced censorship, mainly in universities, to keep a watch on the activities of teachers and students, whom he held responsible for the spread of radical liberalist ideas.

    Since reactionaries among the monarchs were the main adversaries, demands for freedom of the press and other liberal rights were most often uttered in connection with the demand for a united Germany, even though many revolutionaries-to-be had different opinions about whether a republic or a constitutional monarchy would be the best solution for Germany.

    The German Confederation Deutscher Bund — was a loose federation of 35 monarchical states and four republican free cities, with a Federal Assembly in Frankfurt.

    They began to remove internal customs barriers during the Industrial Revolution , and the German Customs Union Zollverein was formed among the majority of the states in For a short period in the late s, Germany was economically united with the borders described in the anthem, and a democratic constitution was being drafted, and with the black-red-gold flag representing it.

    However, after the two largest German monarchies, Prussia and Austria, put an end to this liberal movement toward national unification. August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the text in on holiday on the North Sea island of Heligoland , then a possession of the United Kingdom now part of Germany.

    In the third stanza, with a call for " Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " unity and justice and freedom , Hoffmann expressed his desire for a united and free Germany where the rule of law , not monarchical arbitrariness, would prevail.

    Germany, Germany above all, Above all in the world, When, for protection and defense, It always stands brotherly together. German women , German loyalty, German wine and German song Shall retain in the world Their old beautiful chime And inspire us to noble deeds During all of our life.

    Unity and justice and freedom For the German fatherland! Towards these let us all strive Brotherly with heart and hand! Unity and justice and freedom Are the safeguards of fortune;: After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in , " Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser " became the official anthem of the emperor of the Austrian Empire.

    With those new lyrics, the song continued to be the anthem of Imperial Austria and later of Austria-Hungary. Austrian monarchists continued to use this anthem after in the hope of restoring the monarchy.

    During the time of the German Empire it became one of the most widely known patriotic songs. The song became very popular after the Battle of Langemarck during World War I , when, supposedly, several German regiments, consisting mostly of students no older than 20, attacked the British lines on the Western front singing the song, suffering heavy casualties.

    They are buried in the Langemark German war cemetery in Belgium. The official report of the army embellished the event as one of young German soldiers heroically sacrificing their lives for the Fatherland.

    In reality the untrained troops were sent out to attack the British trenches and were mown down by machine guns and rifle fire.

    This report, also known as the "Langemarck Myth", was printed on the first page in newspapers all over Germany.

    It is doubtful whether the soldiers would have sung the song in the first place: Nonetheless, the story was widely repeated. The melody used by the "Deutschlandlied" was still in use as the anthem of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until its demise in In the black, red and gold tricolour, the colours of the 19th century liberal revolutionaries advocated by the political left and centre, was adopted rather than the previous black, white and red of Imperial Germany.

    In this way, the first verse became closely identified with the Nazi regime. After its founding in , West Germany did not have a national anthem for official events for some years, despite the growing need for the purpose of diplomatic procedures.

    In lieu of an official national anthem, popular German songs such as the Trizonesien-Song , a carnival song mocking the occupying Allied powers, were used at some sporting events.

    Though the black, red and gold colours of the national flag had been incorporated into Article 22 of the West German constitution , a national anthem was not specified.

    On 29 April , Chancellor Konrad Adenauer asked President Theodor Heuss in a letter to accept " Das Lied der Deutschen " as the national anthem, with only the third stanza being sung on official occasions.

    President Heuss agreed to this on 2 May This exchange of letters was published in the Bulletin of the Federal Government. Since it was viewed as the traditional right of the President as head of state to set the symbols of the state, the " Deutschlandlied " thus became the national anthem.

    As the lyrics of this anthem called for "Germany, united Fatherland", they were no longer officially used, from about , [12] after the DDR abandoned its goal of uniting Germany under communism.

    With slight adaptations, the lyrics of " Auferstanden aus Ruinen " can be sung to the melody of the " Deutschlandlied " and vice versa. In the s and 80s, efforts were made by conservatives in Germany to reclaim all three stanzas for the anthem.

    The opening line of the third stanza, " Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " "Unity and Justice and Freedom" , is widely considered to be the national motto of Germany, although it was never officially proclaimed as such.

    The first verse, which is no longer part of the national anthem and is not sung on official occasions, names three rivers and one strait — the Meuse Maas in German , Adige Etsch and Neman Memel Rivers and the Little Belt strait — as the boundaries of the German Sprachbund.

    As the song was written before German unification, there was never an intention to deliniate borders of Germany as a nation-state. Nevertheless, these geographical references have been variously criticized as irredentist or misleading.

    The Belt strait and the Neman later became actual boundaries of Germany the Belt until , the Neman until , whereas the Meuse and Adige were not parts of the German Reich as of Today, no part of any of the four places mentioned in the " Deutschlandlied " lies in Germany.

    In an ethnic sense, none of these places formed a distinct ethnic border. The Duchy of Schleswig to which the Belt refers was inhabited by both Germans and Danes, with the Danes forming a clear majority near the strait.

    Around the Adige there was a mix of German, Venetian and Gallo-Italian speakers, and the area around the Neman was not homogeneously German, but also accommodated Lithuanians.

    The Meuse if taken as referencing the Duchy of Limburg , nominally part of the German Confederation for 28 years due to the political consequences of the Belgian Revolution , was ethnically Dutch with few Germans.

    Nevertheless, such nationalistic rhetoric was relatively common in 19th-century public discourse. Despite the text and tune of the song being quite peaceful compared to some other national anthems, the song has frequently been criticised for its generally nationalistic tone, the immodest geographic definition of Germany given in the first stanza, and the alleged male-chauvinistic attitude in the second stanza.

    However, the latter misleading translation was chosen by the Allies during both World Wars for propaganda purposes.

    German president Theodor Heuss , upon request from chancellor Konrad Adenauer , declared the Lied der Deutschen the national anthem of the German Federal Republic in May , along with the provision that only the third verse was to be sung at official occasions.

    Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 27 August Archived from the original on 8 February Archived from the original on 3 September Retrieved 25 May Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 31 January Archived from the original on 4 January Retrieved 14 May Unesco memory of the World.

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    President Heuss agreed to this on 2 May This exchange of letters was published in the Bulletin of the Federal Government.

    Since it was viewed as the traditional right of the President as head of state to set the symbols of the state, the " Deutschlandlied " thus became the national anthem.

    As the lyrics of this anthem called for "Germany, united Fatherland", they were no longer officially used, from about , [12] after the DDR abandoned its goal of uniting Germany under communism.

    With slight adaptations, the lyrics of " Auferstanden aus Ruinen " can be sung to the melody of the " Deutschlandlied " and vice versa.

    In the s and 80s, efforts were made by conservatives in Germany to reclaim all three stanzas for the anthem. The opening line of the third stanza, " Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " "Unity and Justice and Freedom" , is widely considered to be the national motto of Germany, although it was never officially proclaimed as such.

    The first verse, which is no longer part of the national anthem and is not sung on official occasions, names three rivers and one strait — the Meuse Maas in German , Adige Etsch and Neman Memel Rivers and the Little Belt strait — as the boundaries of the German Sprachbund.

    As the song was written before German unification, there was never an intention to deliniate borders of Germany as a nation-state.

    Nevertheless, these geographical references have been variously criticized as irredentist or misleading. The Belt strait and the Neman later became actual boundaries of Germany the Belt until , the Neman until , whereas the Meuse and Adige were not parts of the German Reich as of Today, no part of any of the four places mentioned in the " Deutschlandlied " lies in Germany.

    In an ethnic sense, none of these places formed a distinct ethnic border. The Duchy of Schleswig to which the Belt refers was inhabited by both Germans and Danes, with the Danes forming a clear majority near the strait.

    Around the Adige there was a mix of German, Venetian and Gallo-Italian speakers, and the area around the Neman was not homogeneously German, but also accommodated Lithuanians.

    The Meuse if taken as referencing the Duchy of Limburg , nominally part of the German Confederation for 28 years due to the political consequences of the Belgian Revolution , was ethnically Dutch with few Germans.

    Nevertheless, such nationalistic rhetoric was relatively common in 19th-century public discourse. Despite the text and tune of the song being quite peaceful compared to some other national anthems, the song has frequently been criticised for its generally nationalistic tone, the immodest geographic definition of Germany given in the first stanza, and the alleged male-chauvinistic attitude in the second stanza.

    However, the latter misleading translation was chosen by the Allies during both World Wars for propaganda purposes.

    German president Theodor Heuss , upon request from chancellor Konrad Adenauer , declared the Lied der Deutschen the national anthem of the German Federal Republic in May , along with the provision that only the third verse was to be sung at official occasions.

    As a result, the Lied implicitly in its entirety was declared the national anthem, with the provision that the third verse would have precedence.

    The inclusion of the first two verses was met with criticism at the time. The first two verses are therefore no longer part of the national anthem, and the performance of the first verse in some cases has been portrayed as controversial.

    In , Pete Doherty was supposed to sing the German national anthem live on radio at Bayerischer Rundfunk in Munich.

    As he sang the first verse, he was booed by the audience. A spokesperson for Bayerischer Rundfunk welcomed the response, stating that otherwise further cooperation with Doherty would not have been possible.

    When the first verse was played as the German national anthem at the canoe sprint world championships in Hungary in August , German athletes were reportedly "appalled".

    Similarly, in the first verse was mistakenly sung by Will Kimble, a U. In an unsuccessful attempt to drown out the soloist, German tennis players and fans started to sing the third verse instead.

    Unity and justice and freedom For the German fatherland; This let us all pursue, Brotherly with heart and hand. Unity and justice and freedom Are the pledge of fortune.

    It gained some currency after the unification of Germany, with a number of prominent Germans opting for his "antihymn" to be made official: Grace spare not and spare no labour Passion nor intelligence That a decent German nation Flourish as do other lands.

    That the people give up flinching At the crimes which we evoke And hold out their hand in friendship As they do to other folk. The German musician Nico sometimes performed the national anthem at concerts and dedicated it to militant Andreas Baader , leader of the Red Army Faction.

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